标签归档 西安夜生活论坛

Nobel prize in chemistry: researcher of lithium battery. Domestic experts: three professors deserve the prize.

John Goodenough (American, born in 1922)

Stanley Whittingham (American, born in 1941)

Akira Yoshino (Japan, born in 1948)

  The 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to American solid-state physicists John Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham and Japanese chemist Akira Yoshino in recognition of their contributions in the field of lithium batteries. The three scientists will share the prize of 9 million Swedish kronor (about 910 thousand US dollars) equally.

  The reporter interviewed many professors from Nanjing University and Nanjing University of Technology. All the professors interviewed were unanimous: the three professors were well-deserved, especially the 97-year-old American solid-state physicist John Goodenough. "We all think that he should have won this award long ago."

  He set a new record for the oldest person.

  Haruki Murakami in the scientific community: 97 years old, working every day.

  This year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry, besides the winning project "People-friendly", another highlight is Goodenough, a 97-year-old award-winning scientist. Previously, this record was held by arthur ashe King, an American scientist who won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics at the age of 96. Because of Goodenough in the name (meaning "good enough"), Goodenough was also humorously called "good enough" by the outside world.

  For many years in a row, the "good enough" old man has been nominated, but he has been in a state of running with him. "Everyone thinks that the old man should have won this award long ago." Zhu Jixin, a professor at the Institute of Advanced Materials of Nanjing University of Technology, said that Goodenough has been nominated for the Nobel Prize many times, which is almost the "Haruki Murakami" in the scientific circle.

  Previously, Goodenough has made outstanding contributions in the field of magnetic materials. For him at that time, electrochemistry belonged to the nature of "playing with tickets". "Early batteries had low discharge capacity and energy storage density. Goodenough found lithium cobaltate with layered structure as the anode of the battery, and used metal materials other than lithium as the anode, which can realize high-density energy storage. " In this way, rechargeable lithium batteries can be commercialized.

  Now, the "good enough" old man who is over 90 years old still goes to work in the small office of the University of Texas at Austin every day. To this, he explained, "My work is not finished yet."

  "Good enough" in Professor Nanjing’s eyes: All-rounder in arts and sciences with high output, especially loving home.

  Many professors interviewed by this reporter are no strangers to Goodenough. Professor Jin Zhong from the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Nanjing University told the reporter that Mr. Good enough is still studying new energy storage battery systems, especially high-safety solid-state lithium batteries, which maintain high-quality scientific research output every year. At some meetings, there is no lack of him. "He is very kind and approachable. He has many new ideas and has been breaking through himself. When he speaks the report, the organization is very clear. The articles he writes not only put forward new concepts, but also explain the principles very clearly. " Admiralty said that he has also taught a group of masters of making batteries, and his disciples are all in academia and industry.

  In academic circles, Goodenough’s "all-rounder" is also famous. From philosophy and other liberal arts disciplines to lithium battery research and other fields of science and engineering, Goodenough’s learning and scientific research stories across the liberal arts and sciences have become the benchmark for future generations to marvel at. Professor Zhou Haoshen from the Department of Energy, School of Modern Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, told the reporter that Goodenough was still a "special family lover" and his life was very warm.

  prize motivation

  They make the use of lithium batteries "good enough"

  "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to three scientists, which gave a shot in the arm to the new energy field that has not won awards for many years." Professor Jin Zhong of Nanda University said that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to research in biochemistry and other fields for two consecutive years. This time, Mr. "Good enough" won the prize at the age of 97, which can be said to be widely expected. The award-winning research on lithium-ion batteries is a systematic research with traditional electrochemistry as the core and involving physics, chemistry, energy and materials.

  A Professor Hao Shen from Nanda Zhou introduced that the early nickel-cadmium batteries and lead-acid batteries had low energy density. In 1970s, Stanley Whittingham, one of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize, made the world’s first new lithium-ion battery with titanium sulfide as the cathode material and lithium metal as the cathode material.

  B This is undoubtedly a great progress of mobile power supply, but it has a lot of hidden dangers, because lithium metal is active, so the battery will be in danger of explosion. In order to solve this problem, Goodenough predicted that if the positive electrode was made of a metal oxide containing lithium instead of a metal sulfide, the battery would have a greater potential. In 1980, Goodenough invented the most important component in lithium batteries, lithium cobaltate cathode material. Nowadays, most portable electronic devices all over the world use this cathode material.

  C Since then, Japanese scientist Akira Yoshino has discovered that the negative electrode can be made of carbon material and does not contain any metal. Matching the positive electrode discovered by Goodenough, he invented the first commercially feasible lithium-ion battery in 1990. Instead of using metallic lithium as the cathode, he used graphite, a carbon material that can insert lithium ions like lithium cobaltate as the cathode.

  In 1991, the lithium-ion battery jointly invented by Akira Yoshino and Goodenough was put on the market by Sony, which marked the large-scale use of lithium-ion batteries. The original brick-like "mobile phone" no longer exists, and it is replaced by a thin mobile phone that uses lithium batteries and "slim down" the parts together.

  At present, both electric vehicle technology and mobile electronic technology are based on the vigorous development of lithium batteries, which makes our life "good enough".

  How to solve the problem of battery spontaneous combustion and slow charging?

  "Super Battery" is on its way.

  The cooperation between Akira Yoshino and Goodenough has made the lithium battery with high explosion risk safe, but readers will surely ask, why do the news of spontaneous combustion or explosion of mobile phone batteries still occasionally appear in newspapers? Admiralty explained that the fire and burning accidents of mobile phones and electric vehicles will be reported every once in a while in the news, precisely because the safety of lithium batteries is still not satisfactory. It can be said that people are still not completely satisfied with the performance of lithium-ion batteries, and further technological innovation is needed to develop a battery with high energy density, good safety, long cycle life and no pollution to the environment, which is exactly what people are looking forward to.

  In addition, our common "complaints" about the lack of fast charging and large capacity of lithium batteries are also the future development direction of lithium batteries. Zhou Haoshen said that the "technological revolution" of lithium batteries is still on the road, and there are three main innovations: the energy density, power density and safety factor of batteries should be made higher. But there is a problem that you can’t have your cake and eat it. Therefore, Goodenough, a 97-year-old "good enough" old man, still insists on the front line of scientific research, just to solve these problems. Perhaps in the future, "super battery" will be successfully born, and new electrons with high energy density, such as lithium air battery, metal battery and lithium sulfur battery, will better change our lives.

  A doctor from NTU has just become a "good enough" postdoctoral fellow.

  In Nanjing University Institute of Technology, Zhou Haoshen’s lithium battery research group specializes in the research of new electrochemical energy storage materials and technologies, including lithium-ion batteries, and keeps in communication with Goodenough’s research group.

  The reporter learned that a doctor who graduated from Nantah Institute of Technology also successfully applied for a postdoctoral position in Goodenough’s research group, officially went to the United States in September this year and began to follow Professor Goodenough as a postdoctoral position. Professor Zhou Haoshen revealed, "Yesterday, the postdoctoral fellow was still with ‘ Good enough ’ The old man discussed the work of NTU solid lithium air battery and agreed to cooperate. " (Yangzi Evening News/Zi Niu News reporter Yang Tianzi)

Tongliang: 6000 acres of cherry blossoms.

At present, in Shuangshan Town, Tongliang District, 6,000 mu of cherry flowers have entered the full bloom stage, which not only attracts tourists, but also breeds new hopes for villagers to increase production and harvest this year.

Tongliang: 6,000 mu of cherry blossoms 1
Tongliang: 6,000 mu of cherry blossoms 2

Walking into Jianxin Village, Shuangshan Town, Tongliang District, looking around, patches of cherry flowers stretch from the foot of the mountain to the top of the mountain, clusters and clusters, densely covered with branches, like white snow, beautiful. Visitors who come to enjoy the flowers stroll along the path among the flowers, breathing the fragrant fragrance and enjoying the beautiful scenery in spring.

Tongliang: 6,000 mu of cherry blossoms 3
Tongliang: 6,000 mu of cherry blossoms 4

Shuangshan Town, Tongliang District is known as the hometown of cherries, and it is a well-known "hometown of small fruits". In recent years, the local cherry and other fruits have been planted in an area of more than 10 thousand mu, among which Jianxin Village is the core area of cherry planting, with more than 10 varieties such as white cherry, cinnabar cherry, Chinese red cherry and black pearl cherry in the early, middle and late days, and the flower viewing period will last until the middle and late March. In recent years, with the flower viewing economy as the fulcrum, the local area has promoted the combination boxing of rural festivals, recommended double-mountain cherries and derivative products, promoted people’s income and helped rural revitalization.

Tongliang: 6,000 mu of cherry blossoms 5
Tongliang: 6,000 acres of cherry blossoms 6

(The first eye-Chongqing Radio and Television Special Reporter Wang Yang Zhou Zhenyu Editor Xiang Wei)

Some knowledge about football

Football is a sport in which the feet are the mainstay, the ball is controlled and dominated, and two teams attack and defend each other on the same rectangular court according to certain rules. Football is called "the first sport in the world" because of its strong antagonism, changeable tactics and large number of participants.

Here are some knowledge about football:

01

The origin of football

The predecessor of modern football originated from the ball game "Cuju" in Zizhou, Shandong Province (now Zibo City) in ancient China, and was later spread to Europe by Arabs from China, and gradually evolved into modern football.

Modern football originated in England.

In 2005, in the closing ceremony of the centenary celebration of FIFA, Linzi, Shandong Province, China was officially declared as the origin of world football.

The picture above shows the ancient Cuju map of China.

02

ancient football

The origin of football can be traced back to the ancient ball game Cuju in China. Cuju’s original name was "Tuju", and the word Cuju first appeared in Historical Records Biography of Bian Que Canggong, while Cuju was called the ancient football in China. In the Western Han Dynasty, writers Liu Xiang and Liu Xin and his son wrote in their personal works Bielu and Qilue: "Cuju players are rumored to be made by the Yellow Emperor." By the Tang and Song Dynasties, Cuju had become very popular and became an elegant activity in the court. This ball game was later introduced to Europe from China by Arabs.

03

Modern football day

October 26, 1863

On October 26th, 1863, several football fans met at the Fremason Hotel in Queen’s Street, London, England, and discussed and established the English Football Association, which was the first football association established in the history of world football, and its establishment marked the birth of modern football.

04

The "four" firsts in football

In 1848, the Cambridge Rules, the first written rule in the history of football, was born.

On October 26th, 1863, England established the first football association in the world, and unified the competition rules of football.

In 1872, the first official match between football associations was held between England and Scotland.

In 1900, in the Second Summer Olympic Games, football was included as an official event.

05

Football playing field

one

Venue area: The venue should be rectangular, with a length of no more than 120m or less than 90m and a width of no more than 90m or less than 45m (the venue for international competitions should be no more than 110m or less than 100m and no more than 75m or less than 64m). In any case, the length must exceed the width.

2

Line drawing: The competition venue should draw clear lines according to the plane drawing, the line width should not exceed 12 cm, and no V-shaped grooves should be made. The longer two lines are called sideline and the shorter one is called goal line. Draw a line across the court in the middle of the court, which is called the center line. The center of the site should be marked clearly, and a circle with this point as the center and a radius of 9.15m should be drawn, which is called the middle circle. On each corner of the site, a flat-topped flagpole with a height of not less than 1.50 meters should be erected, and a small flag should be tied on it; Similar flags and flagpoles can be erected on one side and at least 1 meter away from the sideline of the center line on both sides of the field.

three

Goal area: On the goal line 5.50 meters away from the inside of the goal post at both ends of the competition field, draw a line with a length of 5.50 meters perpendicular to the goal line into the field, with one end connected with the goal line and the other end drawing a connecting line parallel to the goal line. The area within the range of these three lines and the goal line is called the goal area.

four

Penalty area: On the goal line 16.50 meters away from the inside of the goal post at both ends of the playing field, draw a line with a length of 16.50 meters perpendicular to the goal line into the field, with one end connected with the goal line and the other end drawing a connecting line parallel to the goal line. The area within the range of these three lines and the goal line is called penalty area, and make a clear mark at the midpoint of the two goal lines measuring 11 meters vertically into the field, which is called penalty point. Draw an arc outside the penalty area with the penalty spot as the center and 9.15m as the radius, which is called the penalty arc.

five

Corner area: Take the intersection of sideline and goal line as the center and 1m as the radius, draw a quarter arc into the field, and the area within this arc is called corner area.

six

Goal: The goal should be located in the center of each goal line, and it is composed of two vertical goalposts with a distance of 7.32 meters and an equal distance from the flag point in the west corner, and a horizontal crossbar with a lower edge of 2.44 meters above the ground. In order to ensure safety, both the fixed goal and the movable goal must be stably fixed on the field. The width and thickness of doorposts and crossbars shall be symmetrical and equal, and shall not exceed 12 cm. The net is attached to the goalpost, crossbar and ground behind the goal. The net should be properly propped up, so that the goalkeeper has enough room to move. The material of the net is allowed to be made of hemp, jute or nylon. Nylon rope can be used, but it must not be thinner than hemp or hemp rope.

06

Position on the football field

one

Goalkeeper: The main responsibility is to hold the goal, observe the changes of the game on the field, organize and direct the offensive and defensive of the whole team.

2

Full-back: mainly responsible for defending the opposing winger or other players who are inserted into the winger position, and cooperating with the central defender to make up for each other and block the way to attack the goal directly. When our team attacks, we can also wait for an opportunity to help out and play the role of winger.

three

Central defender: It is the pillar of defense. Its main duty is to defend the most dangerous area in the front center of the goal, stop the opponent from shooting, and cooperate with the full-back and another central defender to make up for each other’s positions. It should also play the role of offensive and defensive organization and command.

four

Avant-garde: It is active in the middle zone between the striker and the defender, and its main responsibility is to control the midfield, which is the barrier of defense and the link of frontier attack. Advance can attack, retreat can defend, and timely insert or long-range, which plays the core role of the team.

five

Center: The main responsibility is to shoot through or catch a cross ball. Secondly, it is the "sharp knife" and "shooter" of our team through cross transposition, left and right coordination, disturbing the other side’s defense line and creating opportunities for our companions to insert, cut or shoot. It is the first line of defense for the whole team when the attack turns to the defense.

six

Winger: The main duty is to break through the opponent’s defense line from the side, take the ball and cut the shot or cross the baseline or outflank the shot. When defending, we should keep a close eye on our full-backs, prevent them from assisting freely, and assist our full-backs in defending the opposing wingers.

07

game

compare

game

rule

rule

1. Competition system

The game is divided into two teams, each with 11 players (generally speaking, each team is allowed to replace three substitute players during the game), and one of them must be a goalkeeper. The whole game is 90 minutes, which is divided into upper and lower halves, with each half lasting 45 minutes. The rest time between the first half and the second half shall not exceed 15 minutes. There is a referee and two sideline referees in the game. In each half, the referee can make up time according to the injuries and time-consuming substitution on the field. If the game must be decided, if the two teams draw within 90 minutes, overtime will be played for 15 minutes in the first half and 15 minutes in the second half. If the game is still tied, the winner will be decided by penalty kick.

The game time should be divided into two equal halves, 45 minutes for each half and 90 minutes for a ball game. Unless otherwise agreed by both parties under special circumstances, the following provisions shall apply:

A. In each half, the time lost due to substitution, dealing with the wounded, delay time and other reasons shall be made up, and the amount of this time shall be decided by the referee.

B. At the end of each half-time or after the whole game, if a penalty kick, corner kick, frontcourt free kick or the ball enters the opponent’s penalty area and the goal has not been completed yet, the time shall be extended until the end of the attack. Unless the referee agrees, the rest time between the first half and the second half shall not exceed 15 minutes.

2. Kick-off method

1. Before the start of the game, the kick-off or venue should be selected by coin-in, and the party who picks first should have the right to choose the kick-off or venue. After the referee gives the signal, the game should be started by a player of the opening team kicking the ball (that is, kicking the ball placed in the center of the playing field). Before the ball is kicked out, all the other players (except the team members) should be in their own half, and the opposing team members who open the team should also keep at least 9.15 meters away from the ball; After the ball is kicked out, there is obvious displacement. It should be considered that the kickoff player is not allowed to touch the ball again before the ball is touched or kicked by other players.

2. After a goal is scored, a player from the negative side should kick off again in the same way to continue the game.

At the beginning of the second half, the two teams should exchange venues, and the other side of the team that kicked off in the first half will kick off.

3. Penalty

1. Any kick-off that violates the rules in this chapter should be reopened. If the kickoff player touches the ball again before the ball is touched or kicked by other players, the opposing team should be at the foul place. Kick an indirect free kick

2. Kick-off can be scored directly to the opponent. Kicking into one’s own goal will result in a corner kick.

3. If the ball doesn’t cross the sideline or goal line when the game is suspended for reasons not specified in these rules, when the game is resumed, the referee should drop the ball at the position where the ball was suspended, and the game will be resumed when it hits the ground. If the ball is in the goal area when the game is suspended, it should be dropped on the goal line nearest to the position where the ball is located and parallel to the goal line. When the ball is dropped, the players must not touch the ball before it hits the ground, otherwise the referee should drop the ball again.

4. Dead ball

In the following cases, it becomes a dead ball:

When the ball crosses the goal line or sideline on the ground or in the air.

When the game has been stopped by the referee.

5. The game is going on

From the start of the competition to the end of the competition, the competition should be in progress, including:

A. The ball bounces back from the goalpost, crossbar or corner flagpole.

B. The ball bounced off the referee or linesman on the court.

C. the players on the field fouled and the referee didn’t punish them.

6. Method of winning

Unless otherwise stipulated in the rules, if the whole ball crosses the goal line from between the goalposts and under the crossbar, instead of being thrown or brought in by the attacker’s hand and deliberately pushed into the goal with his hand or arm (except that the goalkeeper is in his own penalty area), the attacker wins a goal. In a game, the team that wins more goals is the winning team. If neither side wins or the number of wins is equal, the game should be called a "draw".

7. Penalty for violation of regulations

-offside

(1) An attacker who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball is in an offside position. Except in the following cases:

1. The player is in his own half.

2. At least two players of the opposing team are closer to the goal line of the opposing team than this player.

(2) When the player kicks or touches the ball, and the team member is offside, the referee thinks that the player has the following behaviors, so it should be judged offside:

1. Interfering with the game or the other side;

2. Attempt to gain benefits from offside position.

(3) A player should not be judged offside in the following circumstances:

1. The players are only offside;

2. A player can directly catch a goal kick, corner kick or throw the ball out of bounds.

(4) If a player is sentenced to offside, the referee shall award an indirect free kick by the opposing player at the offside location. If the player is offside in the opponent’s goal area, then this free kick can be executed anywhere in the goal area where he was offside.

-Fouls and misconduct

(1) A member intentionally violates any of the following nine items, namely:

1. Kicking or attempting to kick an opposing team member.

2. Tripping the opponent’s players, that is, behind or in front of the opponent, stretching your legs or bending over to trip or attempt to trip the opponent.

3. Jump to the opposing team.

4. Violent or dangerous collision with the other team members.

5. In addition to the other side is blocking, from behind the other team.

6. Try to hit the opposing team and spit on them.

7. Pull the opposing team.

8. Push the opposing team.

9. Touch the ball with your hands, for example, carrying and pushing the ball with your hands or arms (except for the goalkeeper in his own penalty area).

Note: On March 5th, 2021, international football association board announced that it had adjusted the rules concerning hand ball, and not all handball was considered a foul. Unintentional handball that causes teammates to score a goal or get a chance to score will no longer be considered a foul. In all the above cases, the opponent should be sentenced to kick a direct free kick at the foul place. If the foul place is in the opponent’s penalty area, the free kick can be executed anywhere in the penalty area. In the course of the game, if the defender intentionally violates any of the above nine items in his own penalty area, he should be awarded a penalty no matter where the ball is at that time.

(2) A player commits any of the following five fouls, namely:

1. The referee thinks that his actions are dangerous, such as trying to kick the ball that the goalkeeper has caught.

2. When the goalkeeper is in the penalty area:

A. Holding, patting or throwing the ball into the air in any direction after controlling the ball by hand, and then catching it, and walking for more than 4 steps without making the ball enter the competition state.

B. After holding the ball, touch the ball with your hands again according to the situation in clause (2)c, although you have made the ball enter the competition state before touching the ball by the team members outside the penalty area or the opposing team members inside and outside the penalty area.

C. The goalkeeper touches the ball with his hand after a team member intentionally kicks the ball to the goalkeeper.

D. The referee thinks that due to tactical purposes, the team intentionally stops the game and delays the game time, which makes the team gain illegitimate interests.

In all the above cases, the opponent should be judged to kick an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific circumstances of the first free kick rule.

3. Players should be warned and shown a yellow card in the following situations:

E. After the start of the game, players enter or re-enter the game or leave during the game: except for accidents, in either case, without the permission of the referee in advance.

F. If the referee suspends the game to execute the warning, the opponent will kick an indirect free kick to resume the game at the place where the ball is located when the game is suspended according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.

G. If the foul player has other more serious foul circumstances, he shall be punished according to the relevant provisions of the rules.

H. the team members violated the rules continuously.

I. express dissatisfaction with the referee’s decision by words or actions.

J. has improper behavior.

Except for a more serious foul, if a player’s behavior falls into any of the last three items mentioned above, he should be given a yellow card warning and ordered to kick an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific conditions of any team rules.

(3) When the referee thinks that a player has the following situations, he should be ordered to play and show a red card:

1. Commit acts of violence.

2. Serious foul.

3. Use foul language or abuse.

4. After being given a yellow card warning, he was given a second yellow card warning for foul.

The game is suspended because of the penalty. If the player does not violate other rules, the opponent should be sentenced to kick an indirect free kick in the foul place according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.

8. Free kick

There are two kinds of free kicks: direct free kicks (which can be scored directly into the goal of the foul team) and indirect free kicks (the server is not allowed to shoot directly, and can only shoot after being touched by other players).

9. penalty kick

(1) Requirements

The penalty kick should be kicked from the penalty spot, and the penalty player must be clearly defined. When serving, all players except the referee and the opposing goalkeeper should be outside the penalty area and in the competition field, and at least 9.15m away from the penalty point. Before the ball is served, the opposing goalkeeper must stand on the goal line between the two goalposts (his feet are not allowed to move). The referee must kick the ball forward; Don’t touch the ball again until other players kick or touch it. When the ball rolls to the circumferential distance of the ball, the game is resumed. Penalty kicks can be scored directly. When the penalty kick is executed in the middle of the game, or when the penalty kick is extended or reissued at the end of the semi-full game in the first half, if the kicked ball touches any post or two posts; Or touch the crossbar; Or touch the goalkeeper; Or continuously touching the goalpost, crossbar or goalkeeper and entering the goal, as long as there is no foul, it should be judged as a winning goal.

(2) Penalty

Anyone who violates any provision of this chapter shall be dealt with as follows:

1. If the defender fouls, the ball should be severely punished if it is not penalized.

2. If an attacker other than the penalty shooters commits a foul, the penalty will be invalid and should be severely punished.

3. If the penalty player commits a foul after the game is resumed, the opposing player shall issue an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.

10. Throw a foul ball

When the whole ball crosses the sideline on the ground or in the air, it should be thrown in any direction in the court by the opponent who touched the ball last before it was out of bounds.

When throwing the ball, the thrower must face the court, and some of his feet should stand on the sideline or outside the sideline. He should not leave the ground with his feet, and throw the ball into the stadium from the head to the back with both hands. The game resumed as soon as the ball entered the court. The thrower must not touch the ball again until it is kicked or touched by other players. Throw a foul ball into the goal directly to score.

penalty provision

1. If the ball is not thrown into the stadium according to the prescribed method, the opposing team members should throw the foul ball in the same place.

2. If the ball thrower touches the ball again after throwing the ball into the stadium before it is kicked or touched by other players, the opposing team should kick an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the opponent’s goal area or fouls in his own goal area, he should kick an indirect free kick according to the specific circumstances of the free kick rules.

Goal kick.

When the whole ball crosses the baseline from the outside of the goal in the air or on the ground, and the last player who kicks or touches the ball is the attacking player, the defending goalkeeper will directly issue a restricted area at any place in the restricted area to resume the game. The goalkeeper must not put the ball in his hand before sending it into the game. If the ball is not directly served from the tee, that is, it has not entered the game, it should be re-served. The goalkeeper must not touch the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players. Goal kick is not allowed to score directly. When serving goal kick, the opposing team members should stand outside the service area before the ball is sent out of the service area.

After the player who serves goal kick kicks the ball out of the service court, he touches the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players, and the opposing player shall be awarded an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the penalty area, it will be executed according to the specific situation of the free kick rule.

12. Corner kick

When the whole ball crosses the goal line from the outside of the goal, whether in the air or on the ground, and the defender touches the ball finally, the attacking player puts the ball in the corner area close to the ball out of bounds and kicks the corner kick.

Do not move the corner flagpole when serving the corner kick. A corner kick can win a goal directly. The opponent of the corner kick player shall not enter within 9.15 meters from the ball when the ball has not entered the game, that is, the ball has not rolled to the circumferential distance of the ball. A player serving a corner kick is not allowed to touch the ball again before it is touched by other players.

1. When a player who kicks a corner touches the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players, the referee shall order the opposing player to kick an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the goal area, it will be executed according to the specific situation of the free kick rule in the rules.

2. If there is any other foul, the corner kick should be kicked again.

Slide down to see all.

08

organization

one

The highest organization in the world is the International Football Federation, which was founded in 1904 and headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland.

The highest organization in China is the Chinese Football Association, which was established in Beijing on January 3rd, 1955.

09

Top ten famous football matches

one

The FIFA World Cup is held every four years. It is a football match with the participation of national teams all over the world, which symbolizes the highest honor in football and has the greatest popularity and influence.

2

The European Football Championship, also known as the "European Championship", is held every four years and is one of the most influential international football competitions. Since 2016, the number of teams participating in the final stage of the European Championship has expanded to 24.

three

The European Champions League, referred to as the "Champions League" or "Champions League", represents the highest level and honor of European club football. Twenty-two clubs have won the Champions League in succession, with Real Madrid winning the championship the most times, totaling 13 times.

four

The English Football Super League, referred to as the "Premier League" for short, is one of the "five major leagues" in Europe. It is composed of 20 teams and is considered to be one of the best leagues in the world. With its fast pace, fierce competition and numerous strong teams, it has become the most popular sports event in the world and the highest-paid football league.

five

Italian Football League One, referred to as "Serie A" for short, is one of the highest-level professional football leagues in the world. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were many stars and powerful teams in Serie A, which was called "Little World Cup".

six

Spanish Football League One, referred to as La Liga for short, is the most competitive league in Europe at present. It is known as the "Star League" and "Mr. League" and is the cradle of cultivating footballer of the year and the Golden Globe Award.

seven

German Football League One, referred to as "Bundesliga", is the highest-level club competition in German football. Bayern Munich is the most successful team in the Bundesliga, winning 28 Bundesliga titles.

eight

French Football League One, referred to as "Ligue 1" for short, started the era of "Green Giants" dominating Ligue 1 when French football superstar Platini debuted in saint etienne in the 1970s, which produced a turning point in Ligue 1 and made French football once again become an important force in Europe.

nine

The America’s Cup is the most important national football match attended by the member countries of South American Football Association. It was formerly known as the South American Football Championship and is also the oldest national football match in the world. It is held every four years.

10

The Asian Cup is the highest-level national competition in Asia. Since 1997, Asian Cup champions have represented AFC in the FIFA Confederations Cup.

10

Top ten famous football stars

one

Famous stars: Pele, Diego Maradona, johan cruyff, franz beckenbauer, Zidane, Ronaldo, alfredo di stefano, bobby charlton, Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.

Source: Ping An Kudur

Editor: Zhang Zibo

Editor in charge: Yang Xiaobin

Duty Officer: Zhang Lijuan

Zhai Xiaochuan suspected to tell the truth, Fan Ziming died for 12 hours, and qi zhou pressured Zhao Ruisheng to change!

In the basketball circle, the news that circulates often has certain basis. People who stand at the forefront usually know the truth best and have the most right to speak. However, their expressions vary widely, some are euphemistic and some are straightforward. Sometimes, straightforward words may be difficult for ordinary people to accept, but these outspoken words are often sincere advice when most people are least heeded.

Recently, there have been a series of sensational events in basketball. Qi zhou, who had expected to return to the Beijing Control Team, was unexpectedly rejected, which led to the Shanghai Men’s Basketball Team replacing him. However, due to the change of head coach and the difficulties encountered last season, the enthusiasm of the Shanghai men’s basketball team was not high, and they finally chose to leave. At the same time, Beijing Shougang men’s basketball team was involved in the trading storm with Fan Ziming as a bargaining chip. Fan Ziming couldn’t help but feel uneasy and tangled. Although he gradually adapted to life in Beijing, when he knew that he had become a bargaining chip, his mood was very complicated and he even became restless when he slept.

To his credit, Zhai Xiaochuan, Fan Ziming’s brother, was very loyal. When he learned that the transaction failed, he immediately issued a "dissolution" statement, apparently to safeguard his brother’s interests.

However, qi zhou is facing another dilemma, because no team is willing to sign with him, and his efforts seem to be in vain. This is not the expected result for him. At the same time, in order to participate in the World Cup, qi zhou must complete the transfer formalities as soon as possible, otherwise he may leave the basketball team. This makes his future full of uncertainty. Zhao Rui, his teammate, is facing a similar problem. The contract with Guangdong Team is about to expire, and it is unknown whether he will continue to sign or be traded.

There are often many stories hidden behind basketball transactions that are not known to the outside world. The players have made a lot of efforts for their future and their dreams. However, the cruelty of reality is often unsatisfactory, and people have to readjust their goals and plans. With the constant turmoil in the basketball circle, players must always make decisions, find their own stage and continue to pursue their basketball dreams.

For basketball players, career is full of ups and downs and challenges. They need to face uncertainty and make hard choices, and all these constitute a moving part of basketball. Let’s look forward to the players continuing to pursue their dreams and shine in the future basketball stage. In this changeable basketball world, I hope every player can find his own basketball home and continue to write their own legendary chapters.

Jokic said that he didn’t want to shout out a sweeping declaration to the Wolves: the series would end next time.

On April 22, Beijing time, the Nuggets beat the Timberwolves 120-111 in the third game of the series, winning the match point with a big score of 3-0. If they win the next game, they will sweep their opponents and advance to the second round. After the game, the Nuggets generals were in high spirits. They all said that they did not intend to bring the series back to Denver, and they were eager to end the series in Minnesota.

"After leading 3-0, our mentality is that we don’t want to go back to Denver to continue playing the series. This is not disrespect for the Timberwolves, because this is our own mentality." Nuggets coach Mike Malone said.

In this campaign, Jokic scored 20 points, 11 rebounds and 12 assists, which was the seventh time in his playoff career that he scored a triple-double. Jokic said that after the Nuggets won the first two games, they didn’t want to let go of the throttle: "We don’t want to give the Timberwolves a way out. We want to go all out and take the lead, and they need to respond. This is our plan and I think we have done a good job. "

If the Nuggets can win Game 4, it will be the first time for the Nuggets to sweep their opponents in the playoffs. Although the Nuggets already hold the match point, they also know that it is not difficult to sweep their opponents to advance in the next game.

"We know that the end of the series is often the most difficult game to play. I hope we can find a way to win. We can’t take the mentality that we can go back to home to end the series. Our mentality should be to end the opponent in the fourth game. " Malone said.

Jamal Murray was satisfied with the team’s performance in the away game. He said: "We know what we should do, they are aggressive, and I think we have done a good job in coping with the pressure."

Judging from the performance of the Nuggets, the number one in the West is still underestimated, and their depth is very thick. Michael Porter said: "The existence of Gordon and Jeff Green gives us a very comprehensive lineup. We rarely use these lineups in the regular season, but these multi-forwards lineups are very useful, because we can switch from the number one position to the number five position. When Jokic was not present, our attack was a little different, but we still completed the attack. We have many players who can do different jobs. "

Shenzhen University Initiates: Micro-specialty of "Virtual Digital Man"

Development of 5G, AI, VR and other technologies

The "Virtual Digital Man" industry is booming.

What? Virtual digital people?

I’ve heard of virtual numbers, I’ve heard of people,

Why can’t you understand this when you combine it?

Don’t worry!

This is not a word mashup, but the first micro-specialty in Shenzhen University.

-"Virtual Digital Man"

"Virtual Digital Man"

"Virtual digital human" is a visible, interactive and adjustable virtual human form that digitizes the human body structure and presents it on the terminal screen through computer technology. As a hot field at present, it is the intersection of computer, digital media, marketing and other disciplines, and it is also the new direction of head Internet companies such as Tencent, Baidu and Iflytek.

From a technical point of view, virtual digital people can be divided into two categories: human-driven and intelligent-driven. Reality-driven is a relatively mature field at present, represented by Tianyi Luo, Liu Yexi, Xing Pupil and AYAYI in the industry. At present, the related concepts of "Metauniverse" form a clustering effect, and virtual digital human is one of the core industrial links of Metauniverse. With the lowering of the threshold and the great richness of application scenarios, it is estimated that by 2025, the virtual digital human industry will reach 100 billion.

In March, 2021, the state incorporated the development of virtual digital technology into the 14th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Outline of Long-term Goals in 2035. Realizing virtual digital technology innovation has become the only way for China to realize industrial innovation and technological power in the future. In this context, Shenzhen University grasped the reality and focused on the future, and took the lead in creating a "virtual digital person" micro-specialty.

Based on the school-enterprise cooperation between the School of Communication of Shenzhen University and Tencent Technology (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., the micro-specialty of "Virtual Digital Man" aims to meet the audio-visual content needs of the meta-universe and artificial intelligence, and cultivate the production methods and principles of virtual digital man. Master the planning, creation and communication skills of virtual IP; Know some artificial intelligence, algorithms and knowledge mapping principles, and be able to integrate code language with images; Establish professional innovative talents with professional understanding and research ability in the meta-universe industry, so as to get through the "last mile" of professional education and professional needs.

Micro-courses will adopt the training mode of "course cooperation+project cooperation +“IP co-creation", and 40 students will be recruited for computer, media art, news communication and other majors every academic year, and eight courses including Digital Man Making, Metauniverse and Media Philosophy, Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Virtual IP Operation will be completed during the training period.

Laboratory scene

It is reported that half of the course content of the micro-major will be taught by the CDD team of Tencent Content Ecology Department in person, and students will have the opportunity to enter the actual combat of the enterprise in the name of project internship. In the teaching process, we also arranged visits and exchanges to broaden students’ horizons, hoping to transport innovative and creative talents that meet the needs of the intelligent audio-visual industry.

Wang Jianlei, the head of the micro-specialty of "virtual digital people" and an associate professor at the School of Communication, Shenzhen University, said that "virtual digital people" is a very cutting-edge professional direction, and Internet technology companies are groping for stones and finding ways to seize the new blue ocean of the market. In the education field, China Communication University, Nanjing University and South China University of Technology have all started to offer relevant virtual production courses consciously.

The cooperation between Shenzhen University and Tencent Technology Co., Ltd. has inherent advantages. If we can take the lead in setting up a micro-specialty based on this, it will be the first virtual digital professional in China. With distinctive features and high focus, it will form a good professional recognition. The adoption of micro-professional training can deliver the shortage of talents to the market in the shortest time, which will certainly benefit all parties in Industry-University-Research.

ShenZhen University

Shendawei major

In order to speed up the improvement of the trinity talent training system of "general education, professional training and characteristic development" in Shenzhen University, Shenzhen University will build a interdisciplinary and collaborative education "micro-specialty" to adapt to new technologies, new economies and new formats from 2019, expand students’ interdisciplinary horizons and knowledge reserves, and open up the "last mile" of professional education and career needs. Micro-specialty builds innovative talent training mode, actively adapts to the demand of social development for innovative compound talent training, and strengthens the close connection between talent training and industrial demand.

At present, Shenzhen University has promoted 40 micro-professional projects.

ChatGPT will have self-awareness in two or three years. How to prevent it from threatening human beings? Zhou Hongyi said so.

"The development of ChatGPT is not a matter of competition among several Internet companies, but determines whether China can accumulate this technology in the next industrial revolution." Zhou Hongyi, member of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and founder of 360 Group, told the Times Weekly reporter.

Zhou Hongyi has been elected as a member of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference Committee for two consecutive years, and "safety" has always been the key word of his proposal. Recently, the great breakthrough of ChatGPT has caused extensive discussion. Zhou Hongyi has talked openly about the development prospect of ChatGPT more than once, and also expressed his concern about the safety of artificial intelligence.

In Zhou Hongyi’s view, ChatGPT or Big Language Model is a milestone in the development of artificial intelligence. It is the starting point of general artificial intelligence and the turning point of strong artificial intelligence, so ChatGPT will bring an industrial revolution driven by strong artificial intelligence or general artificial intelligence.

ChatGPT is not only an enhanced version of search engine, but also more than a chat robot. It will reshape all digital applications and industries through the artificial intelligence services provided by SaaS. Zhou Hongyi said, "In this field, we can catch up."

At the National People’s Congress this year, Zhou Hongyi submitted a proposal, calling on China to catch up with the great leap of artificial intelligence big model technology represented by ChatGPT. People should pay more attention to the innovation mode behind technological breakthrough while paying attention to technological innovation.

Zhou Hongyi, member of Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and founder of 360 Group.

Promote the innovation and development of artificial intelligence big model technology

ChatGPT has caused a global heated discussion. This year, Zhou Hongyi proposed a large-scale artificial intelligence model technology represented by ChatGPT.

"We must find the law of industrial development in the research process." Zhou Hongyi said, for example, why is ChatGPT successful in the United States? Why did Americans take the lead in making it? Why can OpenAI and Microsoft cooperate? "Understanding these problems can promote relevant departments to formulate policy guidance conducive to the birth of China version of ChatGPT and promote the integration of universities, scientific research institutions and industrial companies in China." Zhou Hongyi said.

"We can’t just see how high its big model parameters are." Zhou Hongyi emphasized that the most important thing is to maintain a good and open culture of cooperation. In his proposal, Zhou Hongyi summed up three key factors for the success of ChatGPT-firstly, the "Microsoft +OpenAI" collaborative mode of production, research and research, secondly, the open innovation mode based on open source and crowdsourcing, and finally, the ecological innovation mode centered on the general big model.

Source: the creativity of the worm

Zhou Hongyi suggested that it is necessary to establish a collaborative innovation model of "large-scale scientific and technological enterprises+key scientific research institutions", build China’s "Microsoft +Open AI" combination, and lead the big model technology research; From the height of building a national strategic scientific and technological force, we should screen production and research institutions with good technical foundation, form an industrial synergy combination with complementary advantages, and give full play to the research advantages of scientific research institutions in key core technologies; At the same time, we will give full play to the advantages of large-scale scientific and technological enterprises in productization, engineering, scene, commercialization and data, and become the leading leader in tackling key problems and application of large-scale model technology.

He also proposed to support the establishment of a number of long-term open source projects of national artificial intelligence models to create an open and innovative ecosystem of open source crowdsourcing. Zhou Hongyi believes that the artificial intelligence big model should not be an advanced technology monopolized by a few companies, but should give full play to its industrial and social value.

Focusing on how to promote the technological innovation and development of artificial intelligence big model, Zhou Hongyi proposed to set up a number of national long-term projects in an open source mode for multiple technical routes, with "large-scale scientific and technological enterprises+key scientific research institutions" as the leader, and guide universities, scientific research institutions and innovative enterprises to form innovative ecological groups of multiple technical routes through open source, cooperation, crowdsourcing and ecological innovation modes. On the one hand, it can reduce the risk caused by the wrong choice of technical route, on the other hand, it can also avoid the monopoly of technological achievements in the hands of a few institutions and promote greater scientific and technological innovation and industrial development.

Not developing is the biggest insecurity.

ChatGPT drives a wave of entrepreneurial craze. Wang Huiwen, the co-founder of Meituan, Zhou Bowen, the former chairman of JD.COM Technical Committee, and Wang Xiaochuan, the former Sogou CEO, successively announced their retirement and entered this frontier field.

Technology giants have returned to the rivers and lakes, and Internet giants such as Ali, Tencent, Baidu and Byte have made statements one after another, which will increase investment in artificial intelligence. Under the craze, it is only a matter of time before China version of artificial intelligence language model and ChatGPT-like products appear.

OpenAI took the lead in developing ChatGPT. What did it do right?

Zhou Hongyi believes that OpenAI uses a large number of open source algorithms and papers, skillfully combines various open source achievements, and cooperates with Microsoft to solve the problems of engineering, computing power, data, product experience and business model. Secondly, like Apple’s App Store ecosystem, OpenAI cultivates vertical applications based on ChatGPT. In addition, user traffic is also very important, attracting users to use it, and at the same time, it can also feed and debug large language models based on manual tagging reinforcement learning. Finally, OpenAI has a long-term spirit and a pattern to make universal artificial intelligence innovations that change human beings.

In Zhou Hongyi’s view, China Internet companies have strong engineering ability and strong technology landing ability. "Now, ChatGPT has made a sample, based on open source technology, and there are no insurmountable obstacles. The rest is a matter of time." Zhou Hongyi firmly believes that "with the support of the state’s encouraging policies, China can achieve a better level of follow-up in two or three years."

The big model of artificial intelligence language has a high entry threshold, which is mainly reflected in both technology and capital.

Citic jiantou research report pointed out that the evolution of Transformer in network structure has brought about the improvement of parameters and model layers, which has caused the qualitative change of generative AI technical ability; At the same time, the advantage of parallelization allows it to train on a larger data set, which also promotes the development of pre-training models such as GPT.

As for why ChatGPT can answer questions, Zhou Hongyi told Times Weekly that the training materials for ChatGPT are very important. He pointed out that people mistakenly thought that since robots are chatting with people, they should learn chat materials. In fact, the chat materials generated by social tools have low knowledge content.

"When we chat, no one is talking about knowledge, but they are all lifting each other’s poles. There are many wisecracks and nonsense words." He explained that the chat robot trained in this way is more than "artificial mental retardation" or "artificial leverage", and the dialogue is illogical.

ChatGPT avoids this kind of corpus, just as a person is not necessarily good at expressing, but he is full of poetry and books, expressing elegance and logic, and everyone is willing to chat with such people. Zhou Hongyi emphasized that it is very important to feed ChatGPT with high-quality corpus.

Tuchong creativity

Artificial intelligence technology promotes social progress and also hides risks.

Zhou Hongyi is worried that if ChatGPT is allowed to input corpus without limitation, and get knowledge of searching and browsing the Internet at will, will the self-conscious GPT have the idea of being hostile to human beings after watching movies like Terminator?

After consciousness, ChatGPT may evolve into "eyes", "ears", "hands" and "feet" in the second step. At present, GPT has only "brain". If you add "eyes" and "ears", you can understand all kinds of images and videos of human beings and understand all kinds of audio, knowledge storage will advance by leaps and bounds, and the level of intelligence will also be greatly improved.

In the future, when ChatGPT accesses the API of the Internet and enters the era of the Internet of Everything, it is undoubtedly equivalent to having "hands" and "feet" and indirectly having the ability to control the world. By then, ChatGPT can not only buy air tickets on the webpage, but also take taxis, order takeout, and even manipulate various IoT devices through the webpage.

Finally, ChatGPT may be able to evolve itself. At present, ChatGPT can only write some simple codes. One day, when its code ability is improved, can it automatically look up its own code, correct the upgraded code, or even recompile a new version? If so, it will have the ability of self-learning and evolution, and realize the prospect of robot manufacturing robots.

Zhou Hongyi insists that the biggest insecurity is not developing artificial intelligence. "Whether humans will therefore go into destruction remains to be seen. However, we can’t stop developing technology, but know where the bottom line and boundary of technology are, so as to regulate the development of technology in the right direction. " Zhou Hongyi said.

Ramos’s untimely post-match remarks angered the fans (translated from Corriere dello Sport)

After losing to Bayern Munich, Paris Saint-Germain once again fell to the last 16 of the Champions League. This is undoubtedly a heavy mental blow to a club that is determined to be crowned king of Europe. Although the team has a top player like sergio ramos, who has won the Champions League four times, his great experience in the Champions League seems to have brought no effect to the team. The Spanish defender also expressed his disappointment with the team after the game.

The former Real Madrid defender said on his Instagram: "Like your fans, we are deeply disappointed with the result. The team has not yet won the Champions League, and we are still immature in how to deal with the key details. Unfortunately, we failed to achieve an important goal. Although it is very painful, the champion teams all grow up from failure and adversity. We will come back! "

Ps: Ramos is actually telling the truth. Paris Saint-Germain still has many problems and does not have the strength to win the championship for the time being. But after all, the team spent so much money to buy so many stars, but the Champions League record failed to meet expectations, which made many fans psychologically uncomfortable and it was understandable to scold him. In other words, this year’s luck in Paris is really bad. In the group stage, we met Benfica (super this year) and Juventus. After the second qualifying in the group, we drew one of the strongest Bayern.