标签归档 上海龙凤1314

World refitted car industry grand meeting: Counting ten cool car models of North American refitted car show.


    [Content at a glance]At this modified auto show, Volvo exhibited two high-performance modified Volvo S80 and C30, operated by Heico Sportiv, a famous German modified car manufacturer.
Heico’s modified C30 uses an upgraded T5 turbocharged engine.

    The 2007 North American Modified Auto Show (SEMA) was held in Las Vegas, USA from October 30th to November 2nd. After 31 years’ development, this annual modified auto show has become a grand event of the world’s modified car industry, attracting most of the world’s automobile manufacturers and hundreds of thousands of car enthusiasts to gather in Las Vegas every November.

    So far, there are no manufacturers in China, but with the growth and prosperity of China’s automobile aftermarket, the world’s largest modified auto show is gradually entering the field of vision of China players. It doesn’t matter if you can’t come to the scene in person. Now, follow our reporter and take a look at the world’s most advanced automobile modification technology and products.

    Chevrolet Cobalt SS

    The 2008 Cobalt SS is equipped with the same 2.0-liter Opel and Ecotec 260hp turbine engines as Chevrolet HHR SS, Opel Astra OPC and Pontiac Solstice. The output power is 55 horsepower higher than that of the previous super-powered Cobalt SS, and the acceleration process from 0 to 100 km/h takes only 5.7 seconds.

    Volvo S80 and C30

    At this modified auto show, Volvo exhibited two high-performance modified Volvo S80 and C30, operated by Heico Sportiv, a famous German modified car manufacturer.

    The modified S80 high-performance concept car adopts T6 turbocharged bioethanol engine, which outputs 350 horsepower at 5500 rpm, with the maximum torque of 550Nm/1500~4000rpm and the acceleration time of 0~100 km/h of about 5.8 seconds.

    It is equipped with Volvo electric control all-wheel drive system with instant traction function, and also adopts specially developed sports suspension.

    Heico’s modified C30 uses an upgraded T5 turbocharged engine. The maximum output power is 300 HP at 5500 rpm, and the maximum output torque is 420 Nm at 3500 rpm. The acceleration time from 0 to 100 km/h is only 5.4 seconds, and the maximum speed reaches 250 km/h (speed limit). The car also uses a specially developed sports suspension.

    Hyundai Elantra "Beach Cruiser" Concept Car

    The hatchback Elantra will be launched in 2008. At this SEMA Auto Show, it made its debut as the concept car of Elantra Touring "Beach Cruiser". This beach cruiser was modified by K-Daddyz Kustomz.

    The car body is painted in two colors, beautiful grape purple and tango orange, with beautiful patterns. The concept car is equipped with a huge panoramic skylight on the roof, and the interior is also made of two-tone high-grade leather. A specially installed 8-channel stereo is installed in the trunk, and high-end speaker components are hidden under the floor of plexiglass. There is no special investment in performance modification, except for the cold air intake system, balance bar and beautiful hood, as well as some small accessories.

    Suzuki SXForce concept car

    This is a brand-new concept car based on the SX4 sports car in 2008.

    Compared with the prototype, SXForce adopts a 5-speed manual transmission, a 2.0 turbocharged engine, the power is increased to 255 horsepower, and an adjustable NASCAR-style tail is added at the tail.

    You can even find a built-in data statistics system, which can help you analyze and download all the information of the engine in real time, and make you feel like you are in the competition.

    Cadillac CTS sports concept car

    At this auto show, Cadillac gave this CTS sports car a brand-new appearance through a series of modifications, including: adopting brand-new front and rear bumpers, improved hood, rear tail and 20-inch rims.

    Carbon fiber parts used in many parts of the car body, redesigned headlights, high-performance brakes with yellow calipers, LED brake lights and exhaust system were replaced with Corsa cat-back exhaust system with 3.5-inch exhaust pipe.

    Ford Roush P-51A mustang

    This car is equipped with Roush Stage3 suspension, powered by an improved ROUSH 4.6L V8 engine, with a maximum power of at least 510hp and a maximum torque of at least 691Nm, so the P-51A should be very competitive. Of course, the full set of Roush aerodynamic kit, upgraded wheels and tires, and upgraded braking system are all included in this upgrade package.

    Hummer H2 Safari

    This is a strong Hummer and a super convertible. The car has no back seat, and the purpose of modification is to use it for competition.

    This Hummer off-road concept car is equipped with a 6.2L V8 engine with 393 horsepower. In addition, the designer has improved the shape of the car, including customized air induction system, customized double exhaust pipe system, wheel flash, protective steel, high-performance brake pads and 20-inch wheels.

    Jeep brings two concept cars.

    At this year’s SEMA Auto Show, Jeep exhibited two Jeep concept cars: Jeep Wrangler Ultimate and Jeep Wrangler JT.

    Wrangler Ultimate is based on Wrangler’s four-door non-limited edition model, equipped with 3-inch body lifting kit and 35-inch BF Goodrich mud tires, 18-inch aluminum alloy wheels, as well as a series of appearance upgrade kits, adding new entertainment systems. The engine adopts a powerful 392 Hemi engine.

    Jeep, on the other hand, is a JT made by removing the rear seat and installing a 5-foot-long cargo box on the basis of the four-door Wrangler non-limited edition. It is equipped with front and rear bumpers and spare tire placement equipment from Mopar, Warn 9500ti winch. (Zhou Weili)

Editor: Tian Shijia

Long battery life is full of wisdom, and it is easy for the M5 to travel long distances across provinces.

  By the end of the year, the Spring Festival on New Year’s Day is in sight. Many migrant workers who are struggling in the city are ready to travel by car or return home with excitement. However, if you want to travel all the way without worry and enjoy the fun of intelligent driving, you have to choose a high-energy car with outstanding performance and intelligent core. For example, the M5 is a typical one. I believe that with TA, your journey will be more secure and enjoyable!

  Hard-core chassis+long battery life, zero anxiety arrival in the whole process

  When purchasing new energy vehicles, users pay special attention to the performance and endurance of vehicles. Moreover, during the peak travel period of solar terms, if it encounters rain and snow, many rural roads will become more complicated and difficult. In addition, too low temperature will have a great impact on battery life, and even there will be a situation in which the power is in a hurry. M5 has made full preparations for this question, and provided worry-free protection for the whole journey through the hard-core chassis and intelligent extended range technology.

  In order to improve the safety and comfort during driving, Wenjie M5 is equipped with an all-aluminum chassis commonly used in millions of luxury cars. Compared with the traditional steel chassis, the chassis has the advantages of 30% weight reduction, ultra-high temperature setting, greater rigidity and strength, and can bring a more stable and safe handling experience. It is not easy to roll over in case of emergency, and the car body does not drift when it bends quickly. Moreover, after many rounds of manipulation and bumpy adjustment by China Automotive Engineering Research Institute, vehicles can show better cushioning effect than traditional luxury cars when passing through bumpy roads and speed bumps, and their stability and comfort are never discounted. I have to say that this is also very friendly to people who are prone to carsickness.

  At the same time, in order to solve the "endurance anxiety", Wenjie M5 is specially equipped with an intelligent extended range control system, which fully considers the factors such as road conditions, altitude, temperature, load and vehicle condition, and can realize accurate matching through neural algorithms, bringing users a strong power and low energy consumption experience. With the blessing of the intelligent extended range system, the four-wheel drive version of the M5 intelligent driving version has a comprehensive battery life of 1265km, and the rear-drive version has a comprehensive battery life of 1425km. Whether it’s a reunion at home or a cross-provincial long-distance trip to go on road trip, the M5 can easily "handle" and take you to Shanhai, where you arrive with zero anxiety.

  HarmonyOS Intelligent Cockpit 3.0, efficient interconnection of people and vehicles.

  For young people who pursue the quality of travel, the ideal car for self-driving travel should not only have the two "basic qualities" of excellent performance and long battery life, but also have the "expertise" of wisdom, so as to eliminate the boredom and fatigue during long driving anytime and anywhere. Knowing the needs of young people, the M5 also took this into consideration, so it arranged the HarmonyOS Intelligent Cockpit 3.0 in the car.

  How smart is HarmonyOS Smart Cockpit 3.0? It has reached a new height of intelligent car machine, and it knows everything you want most!

  First of all, it is equipped with a rich application ecology, which makes people’s cars efficiently interconnected, which can make driving more worry-free and life easier and more convenient. With the support of HarmonyOS Intelligent Cockpit 3.0, both the main driver and the co-driver can use the mobile phone application on the car. Use the local life application on the car, check the nearby food, and quickly navigate to take you directly to your destination. Or brush food or favorite attractions on the mobile phone, touch the car with the mobile phone, and the car can also identify the address and navigate to the destination. If you find that the parking space is tight after arriving at your destination, Xiaoyi can also help you find the parking space in advance, so that you can park easily.

  Secondly, it realizes the first "boarding" of space audio, and can create an immersive auditory feast with all-round sound, so that every passenger can enjoy a different wonderful journey surrounded by beautiful melody inside the car and changing beautiful scenery outside the window.

  Thirdly, fun games can quickly resolve travel fatigue. For example, if you want to experience a virtual racing experience while parking, the steering wheel racing game can help you realize it, and the car and horse are instantly replaced by fun.

  Want to open this New Year gift before the Chinese New Year? Now is the best time to win. Recently, I decided to ask all the M5 departments, and I can pick up the car within 2 weeks! In addition, there are premium benefits at the end of the year: the smart driving version will be released within this month, and you can enjoy up to 42,000 yuan worth of matching rights, including 12,000 yuan worth of interior and exterior decoration matching rights, 15,000 yuan worth of technology comfort package, and 15,000 yuan worth of deduction of HUAWEI ADS2.0 urban smart driving package rights.

  Write it at the end

  Traveling thousands of miles in Wan Li by car is the best way to wash your mind; Driving home is everyone’s constant expectation. Wenjie M5 uses hardcore performance and long battery life to solve travel anxiety, and uses "high IQ" to unlock new travel fun, which fully meets the expectations of migrant workers for a high-energy car! Friends who want to buy a car may wish to pay attention to it ~

How to Tell the "China Story" in China Musical?

  China musicals have been developed for 20 years since they created and performed "Yangko Romance" and "Legend of White Snake". In these 20 years, China musicals have experienced ups and downs, however, there is still a long way to go from the developed countries in Europe and America in the presentation of their works, and even there are many gaps with the development of Japanese and Korean musicals. Last weekend, on the occasion of the 2nd Beijing Tianqiao Musical Performance Season, the "2016 Asian Musical Development Trend Forum" was held at the same time. How to develop China musicals became the focus of the forum.

  There are many grand theaters that are idle.

  In recent years, the hardware facilities of cultural construction have developed rapidly, and the grand theater has been rising all over China, which is gratifying. However, after the completion of the new theater, how to develop musical as one of the software has become an urgent problem.

  Li Dun, a producer of musicals, believes that "musicals have developed rapidly in China. In 2014, there were 1,518 musical performances, an increase of 12.4% over the same period in 2013. Among them, 930 original musicals were performed, accounting for 60% of the total musical performances for the first time, and its development activity is close to the data of South Korea, a developed Asian musical country. On the other hand, the investment in national theater construction is too fast, but the supply of theater performance content is insufficient. Nearly one-third of the performance venues are idle or used for other purposes. Most local group performances are difficult to support local theaters, and more excellent performance groups and original plays are urgently needed. "

  Experts attending the meeting thought that the hardware of Tianqiao Art Center, Shanghai Cultural Square and theaters in many places is already very good. In contrast, the original software of China musicals is still difficult to match the hardware, and there is no representative classic of China original musicals. The basic talent pool of musicals is not enough, and the market of musicals is not strong enough to support the perennial performances of theaters everywhere. These are the problems that need to be solved in the development of China musicals.

  There is self-promotion but no good story.

  There is no classic musical in China. This judgment comes from the fact that the original musical did not get good feedback after it was put into the market, and it can only be performed in one place for two or three times. The judgment of its standard comes more from self-promotion. In addition to the market operation problem, poor storytelling is one reason.

  Lv Yisheng, former president of Beijing Dance Academy and founder of musical teaching major, said: "In the past two years, I have participated in large-scale competitions of mainstream groups, including musicals, operas and dance dramas, all of which are non-verbal arts, but there is also a drama problem. The foundation of drama cannot be laid, and it is useless to sing musicals and dance well. " Lv Yisheng compares the stage art that needs to tell stories with Hollywood and Broadway musicals. "We all choose real materials, but we make the real ones fake, and Hollywood makes the fake ones real."

  In Lu Yisheng’s view, the poor storytelling of the script is mainly due to the writer’s cultivation: "Not only the cultivation of the bank, but also the cultivation of cross-border. You must have all aspects of cultivation to tell the story of the musical well."

  There is a musical major, but no outstanding talents can be cultivated.

  In the developed countries of musicals, a city has more than ten musicals every day, but no city in China can do it. In addition to the problem of original musical writers, finding musical actors is also a big problem.

  Yin Haozhen, director of Korean musical, said: "One of the problems encountered in the development of musical in China is the cultivation of talents. In Seoul, South Korea, many musicals are staged every day. When recruiting actors for musicals, there will be about 1,500 actors for each role, and the professional education of musicals has become very popular. With this foundation, there will be great development of musicals. "

  In China, although many art colleges now have musical majors, the talents trained are flawed, the actors from drama colleges lack singing and dancing skills, the dance and acting skills from music colleges are insufficient, and the singing skills from dance colleges are flawed, so it is difficult to find comprehensive high-level musical actors.

  In musical teaching, some teachers have misunderstandings about students’ material selection and teaching, thinking that they can sing musicals if they can sing pop songs. Therefore, it is really hard to find an actor with a real dramatic voice. The weakness of talents is also a reason for the slow development of China’s original musicals.

  Many musicals have no box office.

  In addition, the operation mode did not form an effective scale of development, which also limited the development of China musicals. In original musical dramas, some are created as brands of regional cultural construction, and many of them have not really entered the market operation mode; Some musicals are produced and run by musicians themselves, and there is not much financial support. However, in developed countries in Europe and America, as well as South Korea and Japan, the main reason why musicals can form a climate is to enter the real market operation.

  In the past two years, there have been seven-act musical production companies in the market, which have produced One Step to Heaven, Avenue Q, I, Don Quixote and The Sound of Music. Sha Qing, director of the application of Seven Acts Life, said: "Seven Acts thinks that musicals are more important in terms of operation, and we use a stupid method to make them — — The more money you spend, the better the product. We still take this very seriously. There is no shortcut to this. "

  In terms of operation, the "Seven Acts" also adopted a "stupid" approach. Sha Qing said: "We expect to support ourselves at the box office. Perhaps it is smarter to burn investors’ money or rely on subsidies. However, we believe that if we want to develop healthily for a long time, we must rely on the box office. "

  In this regard, some predecessors in the musical industry think that the idea of "Seven Acts" is a bit "idealistic". Because in the current market environment, although the annual box office income is constantly improving, on the whole, the pressure to rely solely on the box office to support themselves is still great.

  However, in Sha Qing’s view, a company with no college background like "Seven Acts" has to earn enough money at the box office if it wants to survive for a long time, and every drama has to make money. Only in this way can we survive.

  Fan Chong, a screenwriter and producer of musicals, said: "The biggest problem in China musicals is learning. Why study? Learn what? How to learn? First of all, producers and producers need to learn how to control the volume and scale of a play, how to evaluate the cost of a play, how to radiate values, and whether there is any soil for this play to perform in China. Drama needs rationality and data, cost control, and attracting the most audience with the least money. Creators should be rigorous and responsible to the audience, investors and theaters. Only by focusing on one thing can we witness the arrival of a musical era in China. "

  Text/reporter Lun Bing

Actively explore the Hunan path of high-quality development of general aviation in the new era

  Xu Dazhe, Secretary of the Provincial Party Committee and Director of the Standing Committee of the Provincial People’s Congress

  Mao Weiming, Deputy Secretary of the Provincial Party Committee and Governor of the Provincial People’s Government.

  As a national strategic industry, general aviation plays a great role in serving economic and social development and national security. The effective development and utilization of low-altitude airspace and the construction of low-altitude flight service guarantee system are the fundamental guarantee for the high-quality development of general aviation. Since Hunan was approved as the first pilot province of global low-altitude airspace management reform in September, 2020, the provincial party committee and the provincial government attached great importance to it, quickly set up a pilot reform organization, set up a provincial-level development platform for navigation, and strengthened coordination between the central and local governments, military and civilian cooperation, provincial and municipal cooperation, government-enterprise cooperation, and vigorously promoted the mode of "one window for acceptance, one network for operation, and global service". The province has built 12 general airports and opened five low-altitude tourist routes. More than 30 central enterprises and superior enterprises from other provinces have planned industrial layout in Hunan, and the development of general aviation, low-altitude tourism, flight training, aviation sports and other industries is gratifying, laying a solid foundation for promoting the high-quality development of general aviation.





  Cultivate new kinetic energy for the high-quality development of Hunan. Focus on giving full play to the advantages of general aviation’s derivative formats, large development space, wide service range and sufficient supporting kinetic energy, implement major development strategies of general aviation in depth, accelerate the upgrading of aerospace, advanced materials, machinery manufacturing, automatic control, electronic information and other industries, strive to seize the commanding heights of navigation industry development, break new paths for high-quality development of general aviation, and inject new impetus and provide strong support for high-quality economic and social development of the province.

  Broaden new space for the people’s high-quality life. Promoting the popularization of civil aviation is an important measure to conform to the people’s yearning for a better life in the new era. Based on Hunan’s comparative advantages, we should identify the entry point for general aviation to create a high-quality life, speed up the improvement of general aviation supply chain and consumption chain, and constantly improve people’s participation and gain a sense of happiness and security. Accelerate the development of social public aviation services such as emergency rescue, medical treatment, urban security, traffic command and rescue, and build new security for people’s lives and property. Vigorously develop general aviation consumption services such as short-distance transportation, air travel, air sports, aviation science popularization and tourism research, and create new supplies to meet the needs of people’s better life.

  Strive to promote the high-quality development of general aviation

  Adhere to the unity of goal orientation, problem orientation and result orientation, and promote the reform pilot work with high standards and high efficiency. By 2022, we will ensure that the pilot of low-altitude airspace management reform reaches the national expected goal, initially build a "1+13+N" general airport skeleton network, realize the comprehensive application of Beidou third-generation satellite navigation technology in low-altitude surveillance, and the province’s general aviation industry will develop its comprehensive competitiveness and industry output value into the upper-middle ranks of the country. By 2025, the full coverage of general airports will be achieved, a fully functional general aviation system in the province will basically take shape, and the comprehensive development competitiveness and industry output value will enter the top three in the country, forming a new pattern of navigation development with perfect system and mechanism, good industrial ecology, large-scale agglomeration development, perfect service functions and active participation of the people.

  Focus on "one center". Around the center of the global low-altitude airspace management reform pilot, the six goals and eight tasks put forward in the reform pilot implementation plan were fully completed. According to the pilot requirements and time nodes, we will optimize the classified planning, management and use of low-altitude airspace, and steadily achieve the effective use goal of "default opening, announcement closing, dynamic use and flexible conversion".

  Strengthen the "two supports". Focusing on the two supports of general airports and navigable pilots, we will do a good job in the layout planning of general airports in the province, strengthen the approval of projects and land use, and guarantee funds and policies, and accelerate the construction of navigation bases in accordance with the construction layout of "1+13+N" general airport skeleton network. We will carry out the training of general aviation business license, private license and sports driver license, and train a group of high-quality and skilled navigation pilots as soon as possible.

  Grasp the "three keys". Focusing on the three key areas of R&D, production and consumption of the navigation industry, we will take the lead in making efforts on shortcomings and gaps in breakpoints, intensify the research on key core technologies and key components in advanced materials, automatic control and electronic information, and implement the "breaking zero and multiplying" plan to build Hunan into an innovative highland of aviation science and technology with core competitiveness. Give full play to the leading role of a new generation of technology in industrial optimization and upgrading, and fully integrate new generation technologies such as Beidou satellite navigation, cloud computing, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and 5G/6G communication. Promote the autonomous control of the power system and airborne system of the whole navigation machine in the province, focus on building a number of national key navigation manufacturing enterprises, and attract upstream and downstream enterprises in the industrial chain to gather in Hunan. Incorporate general aviation public services and equipment products into the scope of government procurement, develop short-distance transportation, logistics and express delivery industries, carry out aviation culture science popularization, emergency experience and aviation driving experience, fully cultivate leading enterprises of general aviation in Hunan, support leading enterprises to merge and extend the chain, strengthen the position of supply chain and the right to speak in market competition, promote the industrial chain to extend to both ends and climb to the high end, and form a number of leading enterprises of navigation industry chain with national core competitiveness. Give full play to the policy superposition and attraction capacity of the free trade zone and the airport area, increase the intensity of attracting investment and attracting talents, accelerate the construction of a national general aviation development demonstration park, and promote the professional and large-scale development of the whole industry chain.

  Leading the "four major trends". "Green, wisdom, inclusiveness and innovation" is the new trend of general aviation development. With the application of new Beidou satellite navigation technology and the implementation of collaborative and efficient management system, Hunan will take the lead in realizing centimeter-level fine division and precise management of airspace. Hunan will further follow the trend, deeply study the three-dimensional release, intelligent management and efficient use of urban low-altitude airspace, take the lead in developing "urban navigation", and first try the wide application of unmanned aerial vehicles in urban logistics express delivery, public transportation, social public management, medical assistance, urban fire protection, traffic command, emergency relief and other areas of people’s livelihood security, mass and universal, so as to enhance people’s sense of happiness in navigation flight.

  Collaborative promotion of reform pilots has achieved results.

  The pilot reform of low-altitude airspace management has a tight time, heavy tasks and high requirements. It requires the "military, land, people and enterprises" to think in one place and make efforts in one place to promote the detailed implementation of all work.

  Strengthen coordination and cooperation. Give full play to the role of general dispatch, general lead and general coordination of the Collaborative Management Committee Office, strengthen overall dispatch and comprehensive coordination, and regularly supervise the implementation of provincial units. Adhere to a game of chess, deepen the coordination between the central and local governments, the military and civilians, the provinces and cities, and the government and enterprises, jointly study and promote the implementation of major decisions, reform measures and major projects in the reform pilot, and jointly solve the difficulties, blocking points and pain points encountered in the reform pilot.

  Strengthen institutional guarantee. Learn from the experience of brother provinces extensively and speed up the local legislation of general aviation. Strengthen the top-level design guidance, pay attention to the full connection with the provincial "14 th Five-Year Plan", and compile and implement the general aviation industry development plan, navigation equipment manufacturing development plan and general airport development plan with high starting point and high quality.

  Strengthen policy guidance. Detailed implementation of various policies and measures to support the development of the general aviation industry, and fully release the policy dividend. Intensify publicity to attract domestic and foreign general aviation enterprises or groups with abundant funds and excellent qualifications to settle in Hunan. Stimulate market vitality, actively guide and encourage people to participate in navigation consumption such as navigation pilot training and low-altitude tourism, so that the general aviation industry can play a greater role in expanding domestic demand and promoting consumption upgrading.

Give full play to the supporting role of new generation digital technologies such as 5G, data center and artificial intelligence, and inject strong power into new infrastructure (innovative password o

The picture shows workers of China Telecom Lu ‘an Branch installing and debugging 5G base station equipment. Xinhua news agency

  Recently, new infrastructure has attracted much attention from all walks of life. What is the specific connotation of new infrastructure and where is new? How to build and make good use of new infrastructure? This edition has published two reports on "Innovative Passwords of New Infrastructure", so please pay attention.

  — — Editor

  At present, the central government has made important arrangements to speed up the construction of new infrastructure, and many investment and construction plans have been launched, and the technology industry, especially digital technology companies, have participated in new infrastructure.

  Why is the new infrastructure receiving so much attention? Why did you choose to press the "fast forward key" at this time? The reporter interviewed a number of relevant experts.

  Where is the new infrastructure?

  The new infrastructure mainly refers to the new infrastructure represented by 5G, data center, artificial intelligence, industrial Internet and Internet of Things, which is essentially the infrastructure of information digitization.

  Not long ago, the The Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) Conference emphasized "speeding up the construction of new infrastructure such as 5G networks and data centers". Previously, the National Development and Reform Commission made clear the scope of new infrastructure for the first time, and will jointly study and issue relevant guiding opinions to promote the development of new infrastructure, and press the "fast forward button" for the construction of new infrastructure.

  What is new infrastructure? What are the differences between it and traditional infrastructure?

  Infrastructure is the foundation of economic and social activities, which has the basic characteristics of foundation, forerunner and publicity, and is very important to the development of national economy.

  "Traditional infrastructure construction mainly refers to ‘ Tiegongji ’ , including railways, highways, airports, ports, water conservancy facilities and other construction projects, plays an important fundamental role in the process of China’s economic development. The new infrastructure mainly refers to the new infrastructure represented by 5G, data center, artificial intelligence, industrial Internet and Internet of Things, which is essentially the infrastructure of information digitization. " Pan Jiaofeng, dean of the Science and Technology Strategy Consulting Institute of China Academy of Sciences, said.

  Traditional infrastructure has solved the connection between things and people, and the construction of roads and airports has brought prosperous business to the region. The new digital infrastructure solves the connection, interaction and processing of data. New technologies such as 5G, cloud computing, big data, artificial intelligence and quantum computing, as the infrastructure of digital industrialization and industrial digitalization, will bring more space for industrial upgrading and promote the formation of new products and services, new production systems and new business models.

  Railways and expressways are the infrastructure in the industrial age, and in the information age, more infrastructure capabilities such as computing power and algorithms with data as the key element are reflected. Su Meng, Chairman and CEO of Beijing Percentage Information Technology Co., Ltd. described that, in terms of factors, if the data element is "oil" and the new infrastructure is "oil wells and oil pipelines", then data intelligence is "refining technology and equipment"; Data intelligence processes resources into usable and high-value products and services.

  Gao Hongwei, chairman of China Aerospace Science and Industry Group Co., Ltd., said that China’s infrastructure construction has gone through three stages: the first stage aims at establishing the production system and production capacity of energy and industrial products, and the second stage aims at improving "circulation capacity building" and "urbanization construction". At present, in the third stage, the main goal is to provide the infrastructure system of industrial governance, information governance, ecological governance and security governance services, including the information governance infrastructure.

  Liu Song, vice president of Alibaba, believes that the new infrastructure is an innovation in infrastructure, which can promote the creation of new services and new formats. It can change the basic mode of scientific research, R&D design and supply chain collaboration. For example, establishing a new value network based on data creation in the production process can transmit consumer demand to the production side in real time. This digital infrastructure can greatly improve the economic efficiency of all factors.

  Liu Song said that the next 10 years will be the "installation period" of new infrastructure. At present, based on the new generation of digital technologies such as 5G, data center, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, and Internet of Things, various digital platforms including shopping, travel, entertainment, government affairs, and intelligent manufacturing have been formed. These platforms are also the infrastructure for digital industrialization and industrial digitalization. In addition, the traditional infrastructure, such as "TieGong Ji", has been digitally transformed to form a converged infrastructure. With the addition of technologies such as 3D printing, intelligent robots, AR glasses and autonomous driving, the new infrastructure will be a brand-new technical prospect.

  What’s the use of new infrastructure

  Advanced intelligent technology is deeply integrated with industry, and new infrastructure will accelerate the intelligent transformation of traditional industries such as finance, manufacturing and energy.

  Use big data technology to build an epidemic spread model, and quickly evaluate and predict the source of infection, spread speed, spread path and spread risk of the virus; Artificial intelligence remote consultation, auxiliary diagnosis and image analysis can effectively reduce the risk of close contact infection of medical staff and greatly improve the diagnostic efficiency; Many enterprises open their computing power free of charge, support viral gene sequencing, new drug research and development, and help scientific research institutions shorten the research and development cycle … …

  In the prevention and control of epidemic situation and the resumption of production in COVID-19, behind the new things and formats such as health code, online courses and smart retail, the new generation of information technologies such as 5G, big data, artificial intelligence and supercomputing are put into use, which shows the powerful supporting role of new infrastructure.

  The new infrastructure will deeply integrate advanced intelligent technology with industry, which will accelerate the intelligent transformation of traditional industries such as finance, manufacturing and energy.

  In the energy industry, the wind field of wind power generation is mostly distributed in remote areas, and the team of engineers is resident in R&D centers in different places, so it is difficult to carry out on-site operation and maintenance of wind turbine equipment. Due to the complex internal structure of large-scale wind power equipment, local managers of wind farms often can’t predict faults and maintenance well, resulting in high equipment maintenance costs and difficult to reduce operating costs. "Industrial Internet combined with cloud computing and Internet of Things technology can help solve such problems and reduce operation and maintenance costs." Qiao Jian, vice president of Lenovo Group, said.

  In the aerospace field, the industrial Internet also plays an important role in boosting digital transformation. China Aerospace Science and Industry Group Co., Ltd., an aerospace electrical company located in Guizhou, has realized the whole process, automation and intelligence from marketing signing to development and production scheduling, from supply chain and manufacturing to settlement and after-sales, and solved the problem of agile response to market diversity. "At present, the company has hundreds of thousands of orders a year, and can handle up to 2,000 orders a day, which can meet the needs of single-piece and small-batch production of various personalized products and achieve simultaneous improvement in efficiency, quality and efficiency." Gao Hongwei said.

  The new infrastructure can also promote the upgrading and development of basic industries, especially the information technology industry, which not only drives the industry itself to expand its scale, but also promotes the development and growth of the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain.

  Taking 5G as an example, the construction of 5G network not only involves a large number of infrastructure investments such as factories, base stations and power supply, but also drives the transformation and upgrading of various industries such as factory renovation, construction and operation, system upgrade and technical training. According to the forecast of China Xintong Institute, by 2025, the accumulated investment in 5G network construction will reach 1.2 trillion yuan, which will drive the related investment to exceed 3.5 trillion yuan.

  Some experts pointed out that the new infrastructure will also promote the deepening of basic research, promote more achievements in the fields of cloud computing, artificial intelligence algorithms and chips, and help to fill the shortcomings in the field of science and technology.

  Why did you press the "fast forward key" at this time?

  It is not only an objective need to cope with the downward pressure on the economy, but also a strategic choice made on the basis of profound insight and grasp of the general trend of world science and technology and industrial changes.

  In recent years, China has been striving to seize the opportunity of a new round of scientific and technological revolution, vigorously develop the digital economy, and promote industrial optimization and upgrading. The planning and layout of the new infrastructure has already begun. Why do you choose to press the "fast forward button" at this time?

  Experts said that this decision is not only an objective need to cope with the downward pressure on the economy, but also a strategic choice made on the basis of profound insight and grasp of the general trend of world science and technology and industrial changes.

  Mars, a first-class inspector of the Information Technology Development Department of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, believes that in the face of the challenges of increasing downward pressure on the economy, declining marginal benefits of traditional infrastructure investment and declining industrial penetration, promoting the construction of new digital infrastructure is an effective way to hedge the impact of the epidemic, optimize the investment structure and stimulate economic growth in China.

  Creating new kinetic energy for economic development is inseparable from the strong support of informationization, digitalization and intelligence. Ma Yuan, founder and CEO of Pengsi Technology, believes that the concentrated outbreak of online demand during the epidemic shows the potential of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, big data and cloud computing to drive the overall social and economic development, and objectively opens the window of new infrastructure.

  Pan Jiaofeng analyzed that as China’s economy shifts from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development, the maladjustment of the original infrastructure system becomes more prominent, and based on the new era and new mission, the infrastructure system must be strategically adjusted.

  Accelerating the promotion of new infrastructure, the value is not only immediate. 5G, data center, industrial Internet and other fields are advanced. Investing in new infrastructure is actually investing in the future and providing long-term services. Yang Yuanqing, Chairman and CEO of Lenovo Group, believes that the new infrastructure is a wave of infrastructure construction around the new hard core of economy, science and technology, which injects powerful "digital power" into China’s economic transformation and upgrading, and stores energy for high-quality development.

  "In the long run, the new infrastructure is a strategic, pilot and overall project with a strong foundation and long-term benefits. We must focus on the long-term and not be divorced from the national conditions, and we must do what we can." Wan Jinbo, a researcher at the Science and Technology Strategy Consulting Institute of China Academy of Sciences, said.

  Gao Hongwei said that the enterprises participating in the new infrastructure should also have the ability, determination and patience, do things with professional counterparts, take a long-term view, and ensure the speed and quality of the new infrastructure. (Reporter Wu Yuehui Gu Yekai Yu Jianbin)


    In the Thai hexagrams in the Book of Changes, there is such a message: "Bao Yi, use Feng He, not a distant legacy." "Bao" means gourd, and "Feng River" means crossing the river. It means that the shaved gourd is tied to the body to cross the river so as not to sink to the bottom. This method of crossing the river by hitting water with certain tools reflects that human beings in primitive times have gradually mastered swimming skills. China’s earliest collection of poems and songs, The Book of Songs, also contains a poem describing swimming: "As long as it is deep, the boat will sail. It’s shallow, and it’s a swim. " Take a raft or ferry to the place with deep water, and dive or float to the place with shallow water. It can be seen that people’s swimming skills reached a certain level more than 2500 years ago. As time goes by. People’s skills in water are getting stronger and stronger, and the relationship between swimming and human society is getting closer and closer, and it has been playing an important role in war, production and entertainment.

    Navy Boat Wars and Folk Popularization in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period

    During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the southern vassal states established naval divisions one after another, and carried out boat warfare, so swimming became an essential part of sailor training. The art of war "Six Rice Raiders" says, "Those who are skilled, therefore, cross the river in deep water; A strong crossbow leads a long army, so it is also a battle over water. The skill of crossing rivers over deep water is called "strange skill". The book Guanzi also records such a historical material: In order to deal with wuyue’s powerful water army, Qi Huangong built a dam on the river to build a large-scale swimming pool, with a depth of 10 meters, and ordered that "those who can swim will be given a thousand dollars". Trained 50,000 foot soldiers who are good at swimming, and defeated the navy of Yue State. Now hidden in the Palace Museum during the Warring States Period, there is a picture of people and fish swimming together at that time, and their swimming posture is harmonious and natural, similar to the current freestyle posture.

    While being carried out as a military training project, swimming activities have also gained a certain degree of popularity among the people. In Zhuangzi Dasheng, there is a story that reflects the folk swimmers: the water of Luliang falls from the cliff of Baizhang, and the waves in the river are rolling and foaming, and the fish and turtles can’t swim. Confucius once stood on the waterfront of Luliang and saw a man writhing in the water, thinking that he was going to drown, so he made his disciples go with the waves to save him. Unexpectedly, the man suddenly surfaced a hundred paces away, singing loudly and enjoying himself, and inviting him to swim down the shore was better than taking a stroll. Such superb swimming skills show that swimmers have mastered the tricks of swimming and the characteristics of water.

    Swimming Technology in Qin and Han Dynasties

    The swimming technique in swimming also appeared very early in ancient China. After Qin Shihuang wiped out the princes, he began a four-way cruise to show off his literary and political skills and consolidate the unified feudal dynasty. According to Historical Records, when he arrived in southern Shandong today, he was told that a bronze tripod of the Zhou Dynasty was sunk in the Swish River here, so he "prayed for fasting and wanted to leave Surabaya, Zhou Ding". He can’t wait to "make thousands of people have no water to ask for, Fu De". This swimming technique was further developed in the future. Hepu County, a coastal county in the Han Dynasty, was rich in pearls. At that time, swimming technology was adopted to collect pearls in the sea. This kind of water production activity has created conditions for the popularization of water sports.

    After the Qin and Han Dynasties, water sports became increasingly prosperous, and there were many experts in swimming. "Biography of Zhou Chu in the Book of Jin" describes that the warrior was good at swimming around and dared to fight. Once, he "fought the dumpling in the water, and the dumpling sank or floated, and the number of lines was ten miles, and the place (Zhou Chu) was with it. After three days and three nights, he killed the dumpling and returned." Being able to fight with the dragon in the water for three days and three nights shows that its swimming skills have reached a very high level. Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, located in the northwest of China, have vivid images reflecting social life in various periods. On the top of the flat base at the back of Cave 257, there is a swimming image of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Four athletes swimming in the water, some of them raised their arms high, as if they were paddling at the same time, like the butterfly stroke now; Some hands are pulled back and forth, which is a bit like freestyle today.

    Tide-makers in Song Dynasty

    Tide, water sports. It is a large-scale water activity including swimming. In the Song Dynasty, frolicking activities reached a climax. Wu Zimu recorded the spectacular scene of Wu’s frolic in the waves in Old Wulin: "The tide in Zhejiang is a magnificent view in the world." In this tide of "coming from the next day" and "swallowing the day and the day", "Wu Er is good at swimming, all wearing tattoos and holding ten big colorful flags, rushing forward and catching up, haunting the whale wave Wan Ren, changing himself, but the tail of the flag is slightly wet. "The skill and courage of these frolicters are really admirable. Some literati in the Song Dynasty were shocked to see these performances. When recalling this spectacular scene, Xin Qiji, a poet in the Southern Song Dynasty, left such words: "Wu Er is not afraid of the dragon’s anger, and the storm is flat, watching the red flag fly, jumping straight on the fish, jumping on the waves and dancing." The superb skills of swimmers are on the page.

    Swimming competition started in Han and Wei Dynasties.

    The swimming competition in China began in the Han and Wei Dynasties, when there was already a folk custom of holding a swimming competition on the Dragon Boat Festival. Every time this kind of competition is held, it is very grand and has a large number of participants. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, a large-scale swimming competition was held on the Qiantang River during the Dragon Boat Festival every year, and in line with the folk swimming activities, the royal family also held swimming competitions every year. "History of Song Dynasty. Rites" contains: In March of the third year of Chunhua (992), it was the early spring, and the river was very cold. Song Taizong Zhao Ling inspected the water army in Jinmingchi. He ordered people to throw the silver ou between the blue waves and let the soldiers swim for it. Of course, it won’t be a person to get the silver ou. This kind of swimming with the nature of competition is obviously to encourage the soldiers to practice their water skills.

    Tide-making skills in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    The folk swimming activities in Ming and Qing Dynasties are still represented by "frolicking in the waves" in Qiantang River every August. Whenever the tide is high, local people will carry out various swimming activities, and there are more and more patterns. Huang Zunsu’s "Ode to Watching Tides in Zhejiang" in the Ming Dynasty describes the thrilling scene of hundreds of frolic athletes performing various strange skills in the wild waves in red light clothes. Records of the west lake said that during the frolic activities, more than 100 swimmers held colorful flags, swam to Haimen to meet the huge tide, and then churned in the rolling tide. There are also people who perform "rolling on the wood", "water puppet" and "water acrobatics" on the water, which is a comprehensive skill of swimming and acrobatics. In addition to the watery areas in the south of the Yangtze River, it is the north, and swimming activities are also carried out to a certain extent at this time. At the end of the Qing Dynasty, Guan Kanglin, a native of Nanhai, wrote a poem about Beijingers’ spring swimming in Du Men Zhuzhi Ci, which read: "Swimming has become a new stone pool, and Cao Cao competes to build a red flag. After undressing, the spring waves are cold, and people are still playing with water. " This is about a folk swimming competition, but for this wanderer from the south, he felt itchy when he saw a northerner swimming, and he wanted to have a try. Finally, he gave up because he was afraid of the cold, so he had to watch others swim in the water. In Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, Tibet, a swimming mural dating back more than 500 years ago is preserved, and its swimmer’s posture of paddling and backstroke is vivid. It seems that even on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which is known as the "roof of the world", people have mastered quite superb swimming skills.

    Swimming as a military training program

    With the development of folk swimming activities, swimming as a military training project has also been paid attention to. For example, Qi Jiguang, a famous anti-Japanese fighter in Ming Dynasty, attached great importance to water warfare, and trained the navy in water sports such as swimming to meet the invading Japanese pirates. Mao Yuanyi’s "Wu Bei Zhi" recorded that the water army of Ming Dynasty was selected from the "Shamin" who was good at swimming, because this "Shamin" grew up on the seashore, was familiar with water, and walked on the ground in the waves. In the battle of coastal soldiers and civilians against pirates in the late Qing Dynasty, the importance of swimming was even more obvious. Gu Han’s poem "Song of Yujiazhuang" tells that the fishermen in Yujiazhuang, Shengxian County, Zhejiang Province, with superb water skills, carried grass and other things to the bottom of the enemy’s ship and wound the equipment, thus defeating the enemy.

    The ancient swimming activities in China were like this. In the combination of folk and military training, they promoted each other and developed together. With its long history and rich contents, it has become a traditional sport with national characteristics.

Editor: Chen Chang ‘e

Attractive manners of ancient beauties (Figure)

    Source: Qianlong News Network? ?

    Mysterious, beautiful, pure and true oriental girl

    One. Black hair and cicada temples

    Black hair means that the hair is black and shiny, and cicada temples mean that the hair near the ears on both sides of the cheeks is as thin as cicada wings. The word Ufa appeared as early as in Zuo Zhuan, and the word cicada temples appeared in the hair style of Wei in the Three Kingdoms period, which was combed by one of the maids named Mo Qiongshu.

    Two. Cloud bun and fog

    The bun referred to here means circular bun, while the bun refers to the knot tied on the top of the head. The so-called cloud bun and fog bun is the bun combed by a beautiful woman like a cloud. According to legend, the earliest origin of bun is that Zhao Feiyan, a fairy beside Nu Wa, one of the four great beauties in ancient times, often tied it up.

    Three. Indigo emeiensis

    Emei is a woman’s eyebrow, and Qingdai Emei is to shave off her eyebrows and then paint them with bluish-black pigment. This kind of eyebrow makeup was very popular as early as the Western Zhou Dynasty, and this adjective has already appeared in The Book of Songs and Songs of the South.

    Four. Looking forward to the bright eyes

    Eyes are the windows of the soul, bright eyes are big and bright eyes, and looking forward to them means glaring. A pair of beautiful and hateful eyes have been regarded as the standard of beauty since ancient times.

    Five. rosy lips and pearly teeth— very pretty or handsome

    As the name implies, red lips are red lips, and white teeth are white teeth. Red lips can show white teeth, and white teeth can set off red lips, both of which are indispensable.

    Six. Jade finger arm

    The ancients attached great importance to the delicate fingers of women, and the fingers of beautiful women must be slender and soft; Plain arms refer to white arms, which are not only white, but also round and full of elasticity. This is the Jade Finger Plain Arms.

    Seven. Thin waist and snow skin

    Although Yang Guifei, one of the four beauties in ancient times, is a plump beauty, Chinese people still prefer slim beauty, and a thin waist means a slender waist; Snow skin is snow-white. According to legend, Zhao Feiyan is the appearance of thin waist snow skin.

    Eight. Lian bu Xiao wa

    Lianbu refers to the footsteps of beautiful women, and more importantly, to the tangled feet. Small socks refer to socks worn by women who bind their feet; Feet like a lotus, and then put on socks, it will become a beauty.

    Nine. Red makeup whitewash

    Red makeup refers to a woman’s full makeup, just like putting rouge on her cheeks today. Rouge is said to have been invented by Huns before it was introduced to Middle-earth. In addition, whitewashing is to apply white powder on the face. This kind of cosmetics has been used by palace beauties in the late Shang and early Zhou Dynasties.

    Ten. Fragrant limbs

    Women’s skin has a fragrant fragrance, which is also regarded as a beauty. This fragrance does not come from a certain perfume, but a natural body fragrance; In addition to the famous Xiang Fei in the Qing Dynasty, it is said that Xi Shi is also a beautiful woman who exudes fragrance.

    Editor: The definition of beauty in each era changes with time. Most of the above standards are no longer applicable. In fact, there is no certain standard for beauty. The so-called beauty is in the eye of the beholder, depending on personal preferences and feelings. 

Editor: Cheng Chong

Rafinha: I want to stay in Barcelona for many years. Red and blue new hairstyle? I had this intention long ago.

Live on May 21 ST, after Barcelona won the championship four rounds ahead of schedule, it lost to Royal Society 1-2 in today’s game. After the game, Rafinha was interviewed by beIN Sports.

More than 88,000 spectators witnessed Barcelona winning the Cup, and the Brazilian striker couldn’t hide his excitement: I want to stay in Barcelona for many years.

In addition, Rafinha dyed her hair red and blue, to which he explained: My new hairstyle? Araujo and I had this idea before in Gated, but I didn’t want to do it in that game, because we still needed a victory to ensure the championship.

Rafinha also talked about wearing the Brazilian flag to celebrate: whenever possible, I will carry the national flag with me. This is the place where I was born, and the Brazilian people love me very much. At such a special moment, they will always be with me.

Rafinha has played 47 games this season, contributing 10 goals and 12 assists.


1-2! Levan’s goal was difficult to save, Barcelona’s unbeaten golden body was broken, and Harvey missed the miracle of Mourinho.

Touring group

In the early morning of May 21st, Beijing time, the 35th round of La Liga officially started, and Barcelona played against Real Sociedad at Camp Nou. In the first half, Sollott steals Comte and assists merino to push and shoot to break the deadlock. In the second half, Sollott pushed to expand his advantage. Levan pulled back a city at the end of the game, but he was unable to recover the defeat. In the end, Barcelona lost 1-2 to Real Sociedad at home and suffered the first home defeat of the season.

After beating the Spaniard 4-2 away from home in the last round, Barcelona has been crowned La Liga champion four rounds ahead of schedule, and winning the league title after four years has also announced the beginning of Barcelona’s reconstruction. As for Real Sociedad, 3 wins and 2 draws have remained unbeaten in the last five rounds, and even defeated Real Madrid, but their fourth position is not stable, Villarreal is still struggling to catch up, and they still need to play against Atletico Madrid and Seville, so they can’t relax.

Perhaps because he has won the championship ahead of time, Harvey directly rotated in this game. Pedri, Garvey and araujo all failed to enter the big list, and Rafinha, Dembele and Levan led the front trident; Busquets and Kathy, Derong sit in the midfield; Bald is a guest right-back, Comte returns to the middle to partner Christensen, the left-back is Alba, and the goalkeeper is Ter stegen; Before the game, the Royal Society players lined up to welcome Barcelona, who won the championship in advance, to enter the stadium.

Only 5 minutes after the opening, Comte took the ball to the midfield and was intercepted by Sollott. After the latter broke the ball, he pushed back and crossed into the restricted area. merino was unmarked and pushed the goal, 0-1! The royal society took the lead in anti-customer.

1 goal behind, Barcelona immediately launched an offensive counterattack. In the 15th minute, Rafinha broke the ball in the frontcourt and made a cross pass. lewandowski took the ball from the bottom and sent it to the back point. Dembele headed the ball and was blocked by Remiro. In the 17th minute, Kathy’s volley in the restricted area was cleared by the Lenormand goal line. In the 19th minute, De Jong inserted in front of the cross pass in the restricted area, and Su Weimendi completed the key damage. A minute later, Rafinha crossed at an oblique angle of 45 degrees, and the header in front of Lewan was actually biased; In the 23rd minute, Lewan scored a direct free kick over the crossbar.

After resisting Barcelona’s three axes, the royal society also gradually found the offensive. In the 28th minute, Rafinha made a mistake in returning, and Barrenechea turned around and strafed and was confiscated by Ter stegen. In the 30th minute, Sollott counterattacked a low cross, and Mohammad Ali Shaw outflanked and stabbed, which was solved by Ter stegen. In the 32nd minute, Muhammad Ali Shawnee sent a straight plug, and Barrenechea followed up with a volley.

Back in the second half, Harvey took the lead in adjusting, and Alonso, Fati and Ferran Torres appeared together; In the 66 th minute, Kubo Jianying set the ball and sent it to the restricted area. Diego Rico’s close-range header actually went straight to the top. After the substitution, Barcelona not only failed to gain anything on the offensive end, but the defense line fell again; In the 72nd minute, Derong’s frontcourt holding organization was broken, Kubo Kenying held the ball on the spot to push back, the Japanese international scored the ball to the left, Su Weimendi knocked horizontally, Sollott easily pushed into the net against the attacking Ter stegen, 0-2! Barcelona 2 goals behind, Real Madrid society ahead of schedule to lock the victory.

In the 90th minute, Phelan Torres got rid of the defense on the right and sent a cross. Lewan threw his head in front of the door and pulled back a city, 1-2! Levan scored the 22nd league goal, five goals ahead of Benzema, and hoped to get his first La Liga Golden Boot.

However, Barcelona finally lost 1-2 at home, and the unbeaten home league was broken. In addition, the number of goals conceded by Barcelona this season has reached 15, which failed to refresh Mourinho’s single-season record in 2004-05.

When two siri start to communicate, do they talk to each other?

Produced by Tiger Sniffing Technology Group

Author | Qi Jian

Editor | Chen Yifan

Head picture | |FlagStudio

"One morning, your AI assistant sent me an interview invitation, so I asked my AI assistant to handle it. The latter thing was done by two AI systems. After many rounds of dialogue between them, the date was finalized and the conference room was booked. There was no human participation in the whole process. "

This is Michael Wooldridge’s picture of the future. He is a British AI scientist and is currently a professor of computer science at Oxford University.

What will happen to our society when artificial intelligence can communicate with each other?

During the one-hour conversation, woodridge was very interested in this topic. He is one of the top scholars in the world in the research of multi-agent systems, and "collaboration between AI" is his key research direction.

In Wooldridge’s view, although artificial intelligence has become more and more like human beings and even surpassed human beings in some fields, we still have a long way to go from real artificial intelligence, whether it is AlphaGO, which defeated human beings, or ChatGPT, which answered like a stream.

When most people are immersed in the phenomenal innovation created by OpenAI, Wooldridge appears much calmer. ChatGPT shows the power of neural network, but also shows its bottleneck-it can’t solve the huge power consumption and computing power problem, and the unsolvable AI "black box" problem."Although the deep neural network can often answer our questions perfectly, we don’t really understand why it answers like this."

AI that surpasses human beings is often called "strong artificial intelligence", while AI with universal human intelligence level is called Artificial general intelligence (AGI).Wooldridge described AGI in his book "The Complete Biography of Artificial Intelligence": AGI is roughly equivalent to a computer with all the intellectual abilities possessed by an ordinary person, including the abilities of using natural language to communicate, solve problems, reason and perceive the environment, and it is at the same or higher level of intelligence as an ordinary person. The literature about AGI usually does not involve self-consciousness or self-consciousness, so AGI is considered as a weak version of weak artificial intelligence.

However, the "weak" AGI is far from the contemporary artificial intelligence research.

"ChatGPT is a successful AI product. It is very good at tasks involving language, but that’s all. We still have a long way to go from AGI. " In a conversation with Tiger Sniff, woodridge said that deep learning enables us to build some AI programs that were unimaginable a few years ago. However, these AI programs that have made extraordinary achievements are far from the magic to push AI forward towards grand dreams, and they are not the answer to the current development problems of AGI.

Michael Wooldridge is a leading figure in the field of international artificial intelligence. He is currently the dean of the School of Computer Science of Oxford University, and has devoted himself to artificial intelligence research for more than 30 years. He served as the chairman of the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) from 2015 to 2017 (which is one of the top conferences in the field of artificial intelligence), and was awarded the highest honor in the British computer field-the Lovelace Medal in 2020, which is regarded as one of the three influential scholars in the British computer field.

ChatGPT is not the answer to building AGI.

Before the appearance of ChatGPT, most people thought that general artificial intelligence was very far away. In a book entitled "Intelligent Architecture" published in 2018, 23 experts in the field of AI were investigated. When answering "Which year has a 50% chance to realize general artificial intelligence", Google Engineering Director Ray Kurzweil thought it was 2029, while the time given by iRobot co-founder Rodney Brooks was 2200. The average time point predicted by all the 18 experts who answered this question is 2099.

However, in 2022, Elon Musk also expressed his views on realizing AGI in 2029. He said on Twitter, "2029 feels like a pivotal year. I’d be surprised if we don’t have AGI by then. (I feel that 2029 is a crucial year. I would be surprised if we didn’t have AGI then) "

In this regard, Gary Marcus, a well-known AI scholar, put forward five criteria to test whether AGI is realized, including: understanding movies, reading novels, being a chef, reliably carrying more than 10,000 lines of bug-free code according to natural language specifications or through interaction with non-professional users, and arbitrarily extracting proofs from mathematical literature written in natural language and converting them into symbol forms suitable for symbol verification.

Now it seems that the general big model represented by ChatGPT seems to have taken a big step towards AGI. The task of reading novels and movies seems to be just around the corner. In this regard, Professor Michael Wooldridge believes that at present, it is still difficult for human beings to achieve AGI in 2029.

Tiger sniffing: AI experts like AlphaGo have defeated human beings, but their abilities have great limitations in practical application. Today’s general big model seems to be breaking this situation. What do you think of the future development of expert AI and AGI?

Michael Wooldridge:Symbolic artificial intelligence is a mode of early artificial intelligence, that is, assuming that "intelligence" is a question about "knowledge", if you want an intelligent system, you just need to give it enough knowledge.

This model is equivalent to modeling people’s "thinking", which led the development of artificial intelligence from 1950s to the end of 1980s, and eventually evolved into an "expert system". If you want the artificial intelligence system to do something, such as translating English into Chinese, you need to master the professional knowledge of human translators first, and then use the programming language to transfer this knowledge to the computer.

This method has great limitations,He can’t solve the problem related to "perception". Perception refers to your ability to understand the world around you and explain things around you.For example, I am looking at the computer screen now. There is a bookshelf and a lamp next to me. My human intelligence can understand these things and environments, and can also describe them. However, it is very difficult to get the computer to carry out this process. This is the limitation of symbolic artificial intelligence, which performs well on the problem of knowledge accumulation, but not well on the problem of understanding.

AI recognizes cats as dogs.

Another method is artificial intelligence based on mental model. If you look at the animal’s brain or nervous system under a microscope, you will find a large number of neurons interconnected. Inspired by this huge network and neural structure, researchers tried to model the structure in the animal brain and designed a neural network similar to the animal brain. In this process, we are not modeling thinking, but modeling the brain.

Symbolic artificial intelligence of "modeling thinking" and neural network of "modeling brain" are two main artificial intelligence modes. With the support of today’s big data and computing power, the development speed of neural network is faster, and ChatGPT of OpenAI is a typical example of neural network.

The success of ChatGPT has further enhanced people’s expectations for deep neural networks, and some people even think that AGI is coming. Indeed, AGI is the goal of many artificial intelligence researchers, but I think we still have a long way to go.Although ChatGPT has a strong general ability when it comes to language issues, it is not AGI, it does not exist in the real world, and it cannot understand our world.

For example, if you start a conversation with ChatGPT now, you will go on vacation after saying one sentence. When you come back from a week’s trip, ChatGPT is still waiting patiently for you to enter the next content. It won’t realize that time has passed or what changes have taken place in the world.

Tiger Sniff: Do you think the prediction of realizing AGI in 2029 will come true?

Michael Wooldridge:Although ChatGPT can be regarded as a part of general AI to some extent, it is not the answer to building AGI. It is just a software combination that is built and optimized to perform a specific, narrow-minded task. We need more research and technological progress to realize AGI.

I am skeptical about the idea of realizing AGI in 2029. The basis of human intelligence is "being able to live in the material world and social world". For example, I can feel my coffee cup with my hands, I can have breakfast, and I can interact with anyone. But unfortunately, AI not only can’t do this, but also can’t understand the meaning of any of them. AGI has a long way to go before AI can perceive the real world.

Although the computer’s perception and understanding ability is limited, it still learns from experience and becomes an assistant to human decision-making. At present, as long as AI can solve problems like a "human assistant", what’s the point of arguing whether a computer system can "perceive and understand"?

We will eventually see a world built entirely by AI.

From driverless cars to face recognition cameras, from AI painting and AI digital people to AI writing codes and papers, it won’t take long. As long as it involves technical fields, whether it is education, science, industry, medical care or art, every industry will see the figure of artificial intelligence.

When talking about whether ChatGPT is often used, Professor Wooldridge said that ChatGPT is part of his research, so it will definitely be used frequently. However, in the process of using it, he found that ChatGPT is really a good helper for basic work and can save a lot of time in many repetitive tasks.

Tiger Sniff: Do you use ChatGPT at work? What do you think of ChatGPT Plus’s subscription mode?

Michael Wooldridge:I often use ChatGPT. I think in the next few years, ChatGPT and the general macro model may emerge thousands of different uses, and even gradually become general tools, just like web browsers and email clients.

I am also a subscriber of ChatGPT Plus. But for the price of $25, I think different people have different opinions. Every user will know whether ChatGPT is suitable for them and whether it is necessary to pay for the enhanced version only after trying it in person. For some people, they may just find it interesting, but they prefer to do things by themselves at work. For me, I find it very useful and can handle a lot of repetitive desk work. However, at present, I regard it more as part of my research.

Tiger sniffing: A new PaaS business model with big model capability as the core is being formed in today’s AI market. OpenAI’s GPT-3 gave birth to Jasper, while ChatGPT attracted Buzzfeed. Do you think a new AI ecosystem will be formed around the general big model?

Michael Wooldridge:ChatGPT has a lot of innovations at the application level, and it may soon usher in a "big explosion" of creativity.I think in a year or two, ChatGPT and similar applications will land on a large scale.Complete simple repetitive copywriting work such as text proofreading, sentence polishing, induction and summary in commercial software.

In addition, in multimodal artificial intelligence, we may see more new application scenarios. For example, a large language model combined with image recognition and image generation may play a role in the AR field. Based on the understanding of video content of large model, AI can be used to quickly generate summaries for videos and TV dramas. However, the commercialization of multimodal scenes may take some time.But we will eventually see all kinds of content generated by AI, even virtual worlds created entirely by AI.

Tiger Sniff: What conditions do you think are needed to build a company like OpenAI from scratch?

Michael Wooldridge:I think it is very difficult to start a company like OpenAI from scratch. First of all, you need huge computing resources, purchase tens of thousands of expensive top-level GPUs, and set up a supercomputer dedicated to AI. The electricity bill alone may be costly. You can also choose cloud services, but the current price of cloud computing is not cheap. Therefore, it may cost millions of dollars to train AI every time, and it needs to run for several months or even longer.

In addition, a huge amount of data is needed, which may be the data of the whole internet. How to obtain these data is also a difficult problem. Data and computing power are only the foundation, and more importantly, it is necessary to gather a group of highly sophisticated AI R&D talents.

Tiger Sniff: Which company is more powerful in AI research and development? What do you think of the technical differences between countries in AI research and development?

Michael Wooldridge:The players on this track may include internet companies, research institutions, and perhaps the government, but they are not public. At present, there are not many players who have publicly announced that they have the strength of big models, and even one hand can count them. Large technology companies are currently developing their own large-scale language models, and their technologies are relatively advanced.

So I don’t want to judge who is stronger,I don’t think there is obvious comparability between the models. The difference between them mainly lies in the rhythm of entering the market and the number of users.OpenAI’s technology is not necessarily the most advanced, but they are one year ahead in marketization, and this year’s advantage has accumulated hundreds of millions of users for him, which also makes him far ahead in user data feedback.

At present, the United States has always dominated the field of artificial intelligence. Whether it is Google or Microsoft, or even DeepMind, which was founded in the United Kingdom, now belongs to the American Alphabet (Google’s parent company).

However, in the past 40 years, China’s development in the field of AI has also been quite rapid.In the AAAI Conference (american association for artificial intelligence Conference) in 1980, there was only one paper from Hongkong, China.But today, the number of papers from China is equivalent to that from the United States.

Of course, Britain also has excellent artificial intelligence teams, but we don’t have the scale of China. We are a relatively small country, but we definitely have a world-leading research team.

This is an interesting era, and many countries have strong artificial intelligence teams.

Deep learning has entered a bottleneck.

When people discuss whether ChatGPT can replace search engines, many people think that ChatGPT’s data only covers before 2021, so it can’t get real-time data, so it can’t be competent for search tasks. But some people think that,In fact, the content of our daily search is, to a large extent, the existing knowledge before 2021. Even if the amount of data generated after that is large, the actual use demand is not high.

In fact, the amount of data used by ChatGPT is very large. Its predecessor GPT-2 model is pre-trained on 40GB of text data, while GPT-3 model is pre-trained on 45TB of text data. These pre-training data sets include various types of texts, such as news articles, novels, social media posts, etc. The large model can learn language knowledge in different fields and styles. Many practices have proved that ChatGPT is still a "doctor" who knows astronomy above and geography below, even with data before 2021.

This has also caused people to worry about the data of large-scale model training. When we want to train a larger model than ChatGPT, is the data of our world enough?futureWill the Internet be flooded with data generated by AI, thus forming a data "snake" in the process of AI training?

Ouroborosaurus is considered as "meaning infinity"

Tiger sniffing: You mentioned in your book that neural network is the most dazzling technology in machine learning. Nowadays, neural network leads us to keep moving forward in algorithms, data, especially computing power. With the progress of technology, have you seen the bottleneck of neural network development?

Michael Wooldridge:I think neural networks are facing three main challenges at present. The first is data. Tools like ChatGPT are built from a large number of corpus data, many of which come from the Internet. If you want to build a system 10 times larger than ChatGPT, you may need 10 times the amount of data.But is there so much data in our world? Where do these data come from? How to create these data?

For example, when we train a large language model, we have a lot of English data and Chinese data. However, when we want to train small languages, for example, in a small country with a population of less than 1 million like Iceland, their language data is much smaller, which will lead to the problem of insufficient data.

At the same time, when such a powerful generative AI as ChatGPT is applied on a large scale, a worrying phenomenon may occur. A lot of data on the Internet in the future may be generated by AI.When we need to use Internet data to train the next generation of AI tools, we may use data created by AI.

The next question is about computing power. If you want to train a system that is 10 times bigger than ChatGPT, you need 10 times of computing power resources.In the process of training and use, it will consume a lot of energy and produce a lot of carbon dioxide.This is also a widespread concern.

The third major challenge involves scientific progress, and we need basic scientific progress to promote the development of this technology.Just increasing data and computing resources can really push us further in the research and development of artificial intelligence, but this is not as good as the progress brought by scientific innovation. Just like learning to use fire or inventing a computer, we can really make a qualitative leap in human progress. In terms of scientific innovation, the main challenge facing deep learning in the future is how to develop more efficient neural networks.

In addition to the above three challenges, AI needs to be "interpretable". At present, human beings can’t fully understand the logic behind neural networks, and the calculation process of many problems is hidden in the "black box" of AI.Although neural networks have been able to give good answers, we don’t really understand why they give these answers.This not only hinders the research and development of neural networks, but also makes it impossible for humans to fully believe the answers provided by AI. This also includes the robustness of AI, and to use AI in this way, we need to ensure that the neural network will not collapse and get out of control in an unpredictable way.

Although the development bottleneck is in front of us, I don’t think we will see the subversion of neural networks in the short term.We don’t even know how it works yet, so it is still far from subversion.But I don’t think neural network is the answer of artificial intelligence. I think it is only one component of "complete artificial intelligence", and there must be other components, but we don’t know what they are yet.

Tiger sniffing: If computing power is one of the important factors in the development of AI, what innovative research have you seen in the research and development of AI chips?

Michael Wooldridge:Computing power is likely to be a bottleneck in the development of AI technology in the future. The energy efficiency ratio of the human brain is very high. The power of the human brain when thinking is only 20W, which is equivalent to the energy consumption of a light bulb. Compared with computers, such energy consumption can be said to be minimal.

There is a huge natural gap between AI system and natural intelligence, which needs a lot of computing power and data resources. Humans can learn more efficiently,But this "light bulb" of human beings is always only 20W, which is not a very bright light bulb.

Therefore, the challenge we face is how to make neural networks and machine learning technologies (such as ChatGPT) more efficient. At present, no matter from the point of view of software or hardware, we don’t know how to make neural network as efficient as human brain in learning, and there is still a long way to go in this regard.

When the system talks to the system directly.

Multi-agent system is an important branch of AI field, which refers to a system composed of multiple agents. These agents can interact, cooperate or compete with each other to achieve a certain goal. In multi-agent system, each agent has its own knowledge, ability and behavior, and can complete the task by communicating and cooperating with other agents.

Multi-agent system has applications in many fields, such as robot control, intelligent transportation system, power system management and so on. Its advantage is that it can realize distributed decision-making and task allocation, and improve the efficiency and robustness of the system.

Nowadays, with the blessing of AI big model, multi-agent systems and LLM in many scenarios can try to combine applications, thus greatly expanding the boundaries of AI capabilities.

Tiger sniffing: What are the points that can be combined with the AI big model and multi-agent system of the current fire?

Michael Wooldridge:My research focuses on "what happens when artificial intelligence systems communicate with each other". Most people have smartphones and AI assistants for smartphones, such as Siri, Alexa or Cortana, which we call "agents".

For example, when I want to reserve a seat in a restaurant, I will call the restaurant directly. But in the near future, Siri or other intelligent assistants can help me complete this task. Siri will call the restaurant and make a reservation on my behalf. And the idea of multi-agent system is,Why can’t Siri communicate directly with another Siri?Why not let these AI programs communicate with each other? Multi-agent system focuses on the problems involved when these AI programs communicate with each other.

The combination of multi-agent system and large model is the project we are studying. In my opinion, there is a very interesting work to be done in building a multi-agent+large language model. Can we gain higher intelligence by making large language models communicate with each other? I think this is a very interesting challenge.

For example, we need to make an appointment for a meeting now. You and I both use Siri to communicate, but you like meetings in the morning and I like meetings in the afternoon.When there is a dispute between us, how can Siri, representing you and me, work together to solve this problem?Will they negotiate? When AI not only talks to people, but also talks to other AI systems, many new problems will arise. This is the field I am studying, and I believe that multi-agent system is the future direction.

Another interesting question about multi-agents and large language models is, if AI systems only communicate with each other, do they not need human language? Can we design more effective languages for these AI systems?

However, this will lead to other problems, and we need to formulate rules for the exchange of these agents and AI programs.How should human beings?Managing an artificial intelligence society composed of AI?

Siri’s question and answer

AI can’t go to jail instead of human beings.

Michael Faraday, a British scientist, invented the electric motor in 1831, and he didn’t expect the electric chair as a torture device. Karl Benz, who obtained the automobile patent in 1886, could not have predicted that his invention would cause millions of deaths in the next century. Artificial intelligence is a universal technology: its application is only limited by our imagination.

While artificial intelligence is developing by leaps and bounds, we also need to pay attention to the potential risks and challenges that artificial intelligence may bring, such as data privacy and job loss. Therefore, while promoting the development of artificial intelligence technology, we also need to carefully consider its social and ethical impact and take corresponding measures.

If we can really build AI with human intelligence and ability, should they be regarded as equal to human beings? Should they have their own rights and freedoms? These problems need our serious consideration and discussion.

Tiger sniffing: The Chinese Internet has an interesting point: "AI can never engage in accounting or auditing. Because AI can’t go to jail. " AIGC also has such problems in copyright. AI can easily copy the painting and writing styles of human beings, and at the same time, the creation made by human beings using AI also has the problem of unclear ownership. So what do you think of the legal and moral risks of artificial intelligence?

Michael Wooldridge:The idea that AI can’t go to jail is wonderful. Some people think that AI can be their "moral agent" and be responsible for their actions. However, this idea obviously misinterprets the definition of "right and wrong" by human beings. Instead of thinking about how to create "morally responsible" AI, we should study AI in a responsible way.

AI itself cannot be responsible. Once something goes wrong with AI, those who own AI, build AI and deploy AI will be responsible. If the AI they use violates the law, or they use AI for crimes, then it must be human beings who should be sent to prison.

In addition, ChatGPT needs to strengthen supervision in privacy protection. If ChatGPT has collected information about the whole Internet, then he must have read information about each of us. For example, my social media, my books, my papers, comments made by others on social media, and even deleted information. AI may also be able to paint a portrait of everyone based on this information, thus further infringing or hurting our privacy.

At present, there are a lot of legal discussions about artificial intelligence, not just for ChatGPT. The legal issues of artificial intelligence have always existed and become increasingly important, but at present, all sectors of society are still discussing and exploring this.

I think ChatGPT or other AI technologies will become more and more common in the next few years. However, I also think we need to use it carefully to ensure that we will not lose key human skills, such as reading and writing. AI can undoubtedly help human beings to improve production efficiency and quality of life, but it cannot completely replace human thinking and creativity.

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