Football is a sport in which the feet are the mainstay, the ball is controlled and dominated, and two teams attack and defend each other on the same rectangular court according to certain rules. Football is called "the first sport in the world" because of its strong antagonism, changeable tactics and large number of participants.
Here are some knowledge about football:
The origin of football
The predecessor of modern football originated from the ball game "Cuju" in Zizhou, Shandong Province (now Zibo City) in ancient China, and was later spread to Europe by Arabs from China, and gradually evolved into modern football.
Modern football originated in England.
In 2005, in the closing ceremony of the centenary celebration of FIFA, Linzi, Shandong Province, China was officially declared as the origin of world football.
The picture above shows the ancient Cuju map of China.
The origin of football can be traced back to the ancient ball game Cuju in China. Cuju’s original name was "Tuju", and the word Cuju first appeared in Historical Records Biography of Bian Que Canggong, while Cuju was called the ancient football in China. In the Western Han Dynasty, writers Liu Xiang and Liu Xin and his son wrote in their personal works Bielu and Qilue: "Cuju players are rumored to be made by the Yellow Emperor." By the Tang and Song Dynasties, Cuju had become very popular and became an elegant activity in the court. This ball game was later introduced to Europe from China by Arabs.
Modern football day
October 26, 1863
On October 26th, 1863, several football fans met at the Fremason Hotel in Queen’s Street, London, England, and discussed and established the English Football Association, which was the first football association established in the history of world football, and its establishment marked the birth of modern football.
The "four" firsts in football
In 1848, the Cambridge Rules, the first written rule in the history of football, was born.
On October 26th, 1863, England established the first football association in the world, and unified the competition rules of football.
In 1872, the first official match between football associations was held between England and Scotland.
In 1900, in the Second Summer Olympic Games, football was included as an official event.
Football playing field
Venue area: The venue should be rectangular, with a length of no more than 120m or less than 90m and a width of no more than 90m or less than 45m (the venue for international competitions should be no more than 110m or less than 100m and no more than 75m or less than 64m). In any case, the length must exceed the width.
Line drawing: The competition venue should draw clear lines according to the plane drawing, the line width should not exceed 12 cm, and no V-shaped grooves should be made. The longer two lines are called sideline and the shorter one is called goal line. Draw a line across the court in the middle of the court, which is called the center line. The center of the site should be marked clearly, and a circle with this point as the center and a radius of 9.15m should be drawn, which is called the middle circle. On each corner of the site, a flat-topped flagpole with a height of not less than 1.50 meters should be erected, and a small flag should be tied on it; Similar flags and flagpoles can be erected on one side and at least 1 meter away from the sideline of the center line on both sides of the field.
Goal area: On the goal line 5.50 meters away from the inside of the goal post at both ends of the competition field, draw a line with a length of 5.50 meters perpendicular to the goal line into the field, with one end connected with the goal line and the other end drawing a connecting line parallel to the goal line. The area within the range of these three lines and the goal line is called the goal area.
Penalty area: On the goal line 16.50 meters away from the inside of the goal post at both ends of the playing field, draw a line with a length of 16.50 meters perpendicular to the goal line into the field, with one end connected with the goal line and the other end drawing a connecting line parallel to the goal line. The area within the range of these three lines and the goal line is called penalty area, and make a clear mark at the midpoint of the two goal lines measuring 11 meters vertically into the field, which is called penalty point. Draw an arc outside the penalty area with the penalty spot as the center and 9.15m as the radius, which is called the penalty arc.
Corner area: Take the intersection of sideline and goal line as the center and 1m as the radius, draw a quarter arc into the field, and the area within this arc is called corner area.
Goal: The goal should be located in the center of each goal line, and it is composed of two vertical goalposts with a distance of 7.32 meters and an equal distance from the flag point in the west corner, and a horizontal crossbar with a lower edge of 2.44 meters above the ground. In order to ensure safety, both the fixed goal and the movable goal must be stably fixed on the field. The width and thickness of doorposts and crossbars shall be symmetrical and equal, and shall not exceed 12 cm. The net is attached to the goalpost, crossbar and ground behind the goal. The net should be properly propped up, so that the goalkeeper has enough room to move. The material of the net is allowed to be made of hemp, jute or nylon. Nylon rope can be used, but it must not be thinner than hemp or hemp rope.
Position on the football field
Goalkeeper: The main responsibility is to hold the goal, observe the changes of the game on the field, organize and direct the offensive and defensive of the whole team.
Full-back: mainly responsible for defending the opposing winger or other players who are inserted into the winger position, and cooperating with the central defender to make up for each other and block the way to attack the goal directly. When our team attacks, we can also wait for an opportunity to help out and play the role of winger.
Central defender: It is the pillar of defense. Its main duty is to defend the most dangerous area in the front center of the goal, stop the opponent from shooting, and cooperate with the full-back and another central defender to make up for each other’s positions. It should also play the role of offensive and defensive organization and command.
Avant-garde: It is active in the middle zone between the striker and the defender, and its main responsibility is to control the midfield, which is the barrier of defense and the link of frontier attack. Advance can attack, retreat can defend, and timely insert or long-range, which plays the core role of the team.
Center: The main responsibility is to shoot through or catch a cross ball. Secondly, it is the "sharp knife" and "shooter" of our team through cross transposition, left and right coordination, disturbing the other side’s defense line and creating opportunities for our companions to insert, cut or shoot. It is the first line of defense for the whole team when the attack turns to the defense.
Winger: The main duty is to break through the opponent’s defense line from the side, take the ball and cut the shot or cross the baseline or outflank the shot. When defending, we should keep a close eye on our full-backs, prevent them from assisting freely, and assist our full-backs in defending the opposing wingers.
1. Competition system
The game is divided into two teams, each with 11 players (generally speaking, each team is allowed to replace three substitute players during the game), and one of them must be a goalkeeper. The whole game is 90 minutes, which is divided into upper and lower halves, with each half lasting 45 minutes. The rest time between the first half and the second half shall not exceed 15 minutes. There is a referee and two sideline referees in the game. In each half, the referee can make up time according to the injuries and time-consuming substitution on the field. If the game must be decided, if the two teams draw within 90 minutes, overtime will be played for 15 minutes in the first half and 15 minutes in the second half. If the game is still tied, the winner will be decided by penalty kick.
The game time should be divided into two equal halves, 45 minutes for each half and 90 minutes for a ball game. Unless otherwise agreed by both parties under special circumstances, the following provisions shall apply:
A. In each half, the time lost due to substitution, dealing with the wounded, delay time and other reasons shall be made up, and the amount of this time shall be decided by the referee.
B. At the end of each half-time or after the whole game, if a penalty kick, corner kick, frontcourt free kick or the ball enters the opponent’s penalty area and the goal has not been completed yet, the time shall be extended until the end of the attack. Unless the referee agrees, the rest time between the first half and the second half shall not exceed 15 minutes.
2. Kick-off method
1. Before the start of the game, the kick-off or venue should be selected by coin-in, and the party who picks first should have the right to choose the kick-off or venue. After the referee gives the signal, the game should be started by a player of the opening team kicking the ball (that is, kicking the ball placed in the center of the playing field). Before the ball is kicked out, all the other players (except the team members) should be in their own half, and the opposing team members who open the team should also keep at least 9.15 meters away from the ball; After the ball is kicked out, there is obvious displacement. It should be considered that the kickoff player is not allowed to touch the ball again before the ball is touched or kicked by other players.
2. After a goal is scored, a player from the negative side should kick off again in the same way to continue the game.
At the beginning of the second half, the two teams should exchange venues, and the other side of the team that kicked off in the first half will kick off.
1. Any kick-off that violates the rules in this chapter should be reopened. If the kickoff player touches the ball again before the ball is touched or kicked by other players, the opposing team should be at the foul place. Kick an indirect free kick
2. Kick-off can be scored directly to the opponent. Kicking into one’s own goal will result in a corner kick.
3. If the ball doesn’t cross the sideline or goal line when the game is suspended for reasons not specified in these rules, when the game is resumed, the referee should drop the ball at the position where the ball was suspended, and the game will be resumed when it hits the ground. If the ball is in the goal area when the game is suspended, it should be dropped on the goal line nearest to the position where the ball is located and parallel to the goal line. When the ball is dropped, the players must not touch the ball before it hits the ground, otherwise the referee should drop the ball again.
4. Dead ball
In the following cases, it becomes a dead ball:
When the ball crosses the goal line or sideline on the ground or in the air.
When the game has been stopped by the referee.
5. The game is going on
From the start of the competition to the end of the competition, the competition should be in progress, including:
A. The ball bounces back from the goalpost, crossbar or corner flagpole.
B. The ball bounced off the referee or linesman on the court.
C. the players on the field fouled and the referee didn’t punish them.
6. Method of winning
Unless otherwise stipulated in the rules, if the whole ball crosses the goal line from between the goalposts and under the crossbar, instead of being thrown or brought in by the attacker’s hand and deliberately pushed into the goal with his hand or arm (except that the goalkeeper is in his own penalty area), the attacker wins a goal. In a game, the team that wins more goals is the winning team. If neither side wins or the number of wins is equal, the game should be called a "draw".
7. Penalty for violation of regulations
(1) An attacker who is closer to the opponent’s goal line than the ball is in an offside position. Except in the following cases:
1. The player is in his own half.
2. At least two players of the opposing team are closer to the goal line of the opposing team than this player.
(2) When the player kicks or touches the ball, and the team member is offside, the referee thinks that the player has the following behaviors, so it should be judged offside:
1. Interfering with the game or the other side;
2. Attempt to gain benefits from offside position.
(3) A player should not be judged offside in the following circumstances:
1. The players are only offside;
2. A player can directly catch a goal kick, corner kick or throw the ball out of bounds.
(4) If a player is sentenced to offside, the referee shall award an indirect free kick by the opposing player at the offside location. If the player is offside in the opponent’s goal area, then this free kick can be executed anywhere in the goal area where he was offside.
-Fouls and misconduct
(1) A member intentionally violates any of the following nine items, namely:
1. Kicking or attempting to kick an opposing team member.
2. Tripping the opponent’s players, that is, behind or in front of the opponent, stretching your legs or bending over to trip or attempt to trip the opponent.
3. Jump to the opposing team.
4. Violent or dangerous collision with the other team members.
5. In addition to the other side is blocking, from behind the other team.
6. Try to hit the opposing team and spit on them.
7. Pull the opposing team.
8. Push the opposing team.
9. Touch the ball with your hands, for example, carrying and pushing the ball with your hands or arms (except for the goalkeeper in his own penalty area).
Note: On March 5th, 2021, international football association board announced that it had adjusted the rules concerning hand ball, and not all handball was considered a foul. Unintentional handball that causes teammates to score a goal or get a chance to score will no longer be considered a foul. In all the above cases, the opponent should be sentenced to kick a direct free kick at the foul place. If the foul place is in the opponent’s penalty area, the free kick can be executed anywhere in the penalty area. In the course of the game, if the defender intentionally violates any of the above nine items in his own penalty area, he should be awarded a penalty no matter where the ball is at that time.
(2) A player commits any of the following five fouls, namely:
1. The referee thinks that his actions are dangerous, such as trying to kick the ball that the goalkeeper has caught.
2. When the goalkeeper is in the penalty area:
A. Holding, patting or throwing the ball into the air in any direction after controlling the ball by hand, and then catching it, and walking for more than 4 steps without making the ball enter the competition state.
B. After holding the ball, touch the ball with your hands again according to the situation in clause (2)c, although you have made the ball enter the competition state before touching the ball by the team members outside the penalty area or the opposing team members inside and outside the penalty area.
C. The goalkeeper touches the ball with his hand after a team member intentionally kicks the ball to the goalkeeper.
D. The referee thinks that due to tactical purposes, the team intentionally stops the game and delays the game time, which makes the team gain illegitimate interests.
In all the above cases, the opponent should be judged to kick an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific circumstances of the first free kick rule.
3. Players should be warned and shown a yellow card in the following situations:
E. After the start of the game, players enter or re-enter the game or leave during the game: except for accidents, in either case, without the permission of the referee in advance.
F. If the referee suspends the game to execute the warning, the opponent will kick an indirect free kick to resume the game at the place where the ball is located when the game is suspended according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.
G. If the foul player has other more serious foul circumstances, he shall be punished according to the relevant provisions of the rules.
H. the team members violated the rules continuously.
I. express dissatisfaction with the referee’s decision by words or actions.
J. has improper behavior.
Except for a more serious foul, if a player’s behavior falls into any of the last three items mentioned above, he should be given a yellow card warning and ordered to kick an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific conditions of any team rules.
(3) When the referee thinks that a player has the following situations, he should be ordered to play and show a red card:
1. Commit acts of violence.
2. Serious foul.
3. Use foul language or abuse.
4. After being given a yellow card warning, he was given a second yellow card warning for foul.
The game is suspended because of the penalty. If the player does not violate other rules, the opponent should be sentenced to kick an indirect free kick in the foul place according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.
8. Free kick
There are two kinds of free kicks: direct free kicks (which can be scored directly into the goal of the foul team) and indirect free kicks (the server is not allowed to shoot directly, and can only shoot after being touched by other players).
9. penalty kick
The penalty kick should be kicked from the penalty spot, and the penalty player must be clearly defined. When serving, all players except the referee and the opposing goalkeeper should be outside the penalty area and in the competition field, and at least 9.15m away from the penalty point. Before the ball is served, the opposing goalkeeper must stand on the goal line between the two goalposts (his feet are not allowed to move). The referee must kick the ball forward; Don’t touch the ball again until other players kick or touch it. When the ball rolls to the circumferential distance of the ball, the game is resumed. Penalty kicks can be scored directly. When the penalty kick is executed in the middle of the game, or when the penalty kick is extended or reissued at the end of the semi-full game in the first half, if the kicked ball touches any post or two posts; Or touch the crossbar; Or touch the goalkeeper; Or continuously touching the goalpost, crossbar or goalkeeper and entering the goal, as long as there is no foul, it should be judged as a winning goal.
Anyone who violates any provision of this chapter shall be dealt with as follows:
1. If the defender fouls, the ball should be severely punished if it is not penalized.
2. If an attacker other than the penalty shooters commits a foul, the penalty will be invalid and should be severely punished.
3. If the penalty player commits a foul after the game is resumed, the opposing player shall issue an indirect free kick at the foul place according to the specific situation of the free kick rules.
10. Throw a foul ball
When the whole ball crosses the sideline on the ground or in the air, it should be thrown in any direction in the court by the opponent who touched the ball last before it was out of bounds.
When throwing the ball, the thrower must face the court, and some of his feet should stand on the sideline or outside the sideline. He should not leave the ground with his feet, and throw the ball into the stadium from the head to the back with both hands. The game resumed as soon as the ball entered the court. The thrower must not touch the ball again until it is kicked or touched by other players. Throw a foul ball into the goal directly to score.
1. If the ball is not thrown into the stadium according to the prescribed method, the opposing team members should throw the foul ball in the same place.
2. If the ball thrower touches the ball again after throwing the ball into the stadium before it is kicked or touched by other players, the opposing team should kick an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the opponent’s goal area or fouls in his own goal area, he should kick an indirect free kick according to the specific circumstances of the free kick rules.
When the whole ball crosses the baseline from the outside of the goal in the air or on the ground, and the last player who kicks or touches the ball is the attacking player, the defending goalkeeper will directly issue a restricted area at any place in the restricted area to resume the game. The goalkeeper must not put the ball in his hand before sending it into the game. If the ball is not directly served from the tee, that is, it has not entered the game, it should be re-served. The goalkeeper must not touch the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players. Goal kick is not allowed to score directly. When serving goal kick, the opposing team members should stand outside the service area before the ball is sent out of the service area.
After the player who serves goal kick kicks the ball out of the service court, he touches the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players, and the opposing player shall be awarded an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the penalty area, it will be executed according to the specific situation of the free kick rule.
12. Corner kick
When the whole ball crosses the goal line from the outside of the goal, whether in the air or on the ground, and the defender touches the ball finally, the attacking player puts the ball in the corner area close to the ball out of bounds and kicks the corner kick.
Do not move the corner flagpole when serving the corner kick. A corner kick can win a goal directly. The opponent of the corner kick player shall not enter within 9.15 meters from the ball when the ball has not entered the game, that is, the ball has not rolled to the circumferential distance of the ball. A player serving a corner kick is not allowed to touch the ball again before it is touched by other players.
1. When a player who kicks a corner touches the ball again before it is kicked or touched by other players, the referee shall order the opposing player to kick an indirect free kick at the place where the foul occurred. If a player fouls in the goal area, it will be executed according to the specific situation of the free kick rule in the rules.
2. If there is any other foul, the corner kick should be kicked again.
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The highest organization in the world is the International Football Federation, which was founded in 1904 and headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland.
The highest organization in China is the Chinese Football Association, which was established in Beijing on January 3rd, 1955.
Top ten famous football matches
The FIFA World Cup is held every four years. It is a football match with the participation of national teams all over the world, which symbolizes the highest honor in football and has the greatest popularity and influence.
The European Football Championship, also known as the "European Championship", is held every four years and is one of the most influential international football competitions. Since 2016, the number of teams participating in the final stage of the European Championship has expanded to 24.
The European Champions League, referred to as the "Champions League" or "Champions League", represents the highest level and honor of European club football. Twenty-two clubs have won the Champions League in succession, with Real Madrid winning the championship the most times, totaling 13 times.
The English Football Super League, referred to as the "Premier League" for short, is one of the "five major leagues" in Europe. It is composed of 20 teams and is considered to be one of the best leagues in the world. With its fast pace, fierce competition and numerous strong teams, it has become the most popular sports event in the world and the highest-paid football league.
Italian Football League One, referred to as "Serie A" for short, is one of the highest-level professional football leagues in the world. In the 1980s and 1990s, there were many stars and powerful teams in Serie A, which was called "Little World Cup".
Spanish Football League One, referred to as La Liga for short, is the most competitive league in Europe at present. It is known as the "Star League" and "Mr. League" and is the cradle of cultivating footballer of the year and the Golden Globe Award.
German Football League One, referred to as "Bundesliga", is the highest-level club competition in German football. Bayern Munich is the most successful team in the Bundesliga, winning 28 Bundesliga titles.
French Football League One, referred to as "Ligue 1" for short, started the era of "Green Giants" dominating Ligue 1 when French football superstar Platini debuted in saint etienne in the 1970s, which produced a turning point in Ligue 1 and made French football once again become an important force in Europe.
The America’s Cup is the most important national football match attended by the member countries of South American Football Association. It was formerly known as the South American Football Championship and is also the oldest national football match in the world. It is held every four years.
The Asian Cup is the highest-level national competition in Asia. Since 1997, Asian Cup champions have represented AFC in the FIFA Confederations Cup.
Top ten famous football stars
Famous stars: Pele, Diego Maradona, johan cruyff, franz beckenbauer, Zidane, Ronaldo, alfredo di stefano, bobby charlton, Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.
Source: Ping An Kudur
Editor: Zhang Zibo
Editor in charge: Yang Xiaobin
Duty Officer: Zhang Lijuan