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Comments | The decision-making level made five statements within one month. How to get the house price in 2017?

  CCTV News:Looking back on 2016, this year’s property market can be described as "first rising and then restraining". If the hot words in the first half of the year are skyrocketing housing prices, then the hot words in the second half of the year are undoubtedly the introduction of regulatory policies, and this trend is continuing.

  Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development: Pay close attention to hot cities, control housing prices, and destock third-and fourth-tier cities

  On the 29th, the website of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development published the Circular of the Party Group of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the Communist Party of China on Inspection and Rectification, pointing out that it will continuously strengthen the regulation of the real estate market and actively carry out research.Pay close attention to hot cities to control housing prices, and third-and fourth-tier cities and counties and cities to go to stock.And standardize and rectify the market order.

  In fact, this has been the decision-making level since December.the fifth timeClear real estate regulation and control objectives.

  The Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee held a meeting on December 9, pointing out that it is necessary to dissolve the real estate inventory, accelerate the urbanization of migrant workers, promote the reform of the housing system to meet new citizens, expand effective demand, and stabilize the real estate market.

  On December 14th, the Central Economic Work Conference held a meeting and pointed out that it is necessary to adhere to the position that "houses are used for living, not for speculation" and put forward solutions.

  On December 21st, the 14th meeting of the Central Leading Group for Finance and Economics emphasized standardizing the housing rental market and curbing the real estate bubble.

  On December 26th, Chen Zhenggao, Minister of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction, pointed out that we should do a good job in preventing bubbles and risks in hot cities.

  Since the introduction of the new policy of property market regulation in many cities across the country on September 30, the price increase in many hot cities across the country declined in November.

△ On December 11th, China Index Academy released the national residential price index of 100 cities in November 2016.

  However, the transaction volume price of some cities is still at a high level, which also triggered the second upgrade of the regulatory policies of a series of cities. It is worth mentioning that since December, the efforts to control housing prices in various places are still increasing:

  Upgrade purchase restriction in several provincial capital cities:

  December 26, Jinan City

  Purchase restriction for registered households in this city2 sets; Foreign purchase restriction1 set, and must provide proof of paying personal income tax or social insurance in urban areas for more than 24 consecutive months. In addition, in the new property market policy issued by Jinan, clear management measures are put forward for the transaction behavior of the land market.

  In December, Zhengzhou City restricted purchase and loan double upgrade.

  On December 21st, Zhengzhou announced the regulation policy and upgraded the existing purchase restriction policy. That is, on the basis of the original purchase restriction,More than 180 square meters (inclusive)Housing (including new commercial housing and stock housing) is also included in the scope of purchase restriction.

  Non-Zhengzhou household registration families need to provide continuous payment in Zhengzhou when purchasing houses in Zhengzhou.More than 2 years(including 2 years) personal income tax or social insurance certificate. In addition, the New Deal has further increased the use of other means of regulation, such as reaffirming the strict control of housing provident fund credit policy.

  On December 23, Henan Province issued the Notice on Further Improving the Personal Housing Loan Business in Zhengzhou Restricted Area, and the down payment ratio of the second suite was adjusted to60%The Zhengzhou real estate market’s loan restriction regulation policy has been upgraded again.

  On December 21, Wuhan issued a notice to expand the scope of housing purchase restriction.

  It is stipulated that from December 22nd, Wuhan will increase the housing purchase restriction in some areas of Dongxihu District, Jiangxia District and huangpi district.

  Beijing, a typical representative of first-tier cities, also clearly pointed out a few days ago that investment speculation should be resolutely curbed.Ensure that house prices will not increase in 2017.. This means that controlling housing prices has become the top priority of real estate regulation.

  The central level has repeatedly reiterated the requirements of real estate regulation and control, and the upgrading of local regulation and control policies have further explained the urgency of real estate regulation and control. Looking forward to 2017, how will the real estate market go?

  In the hot real estate market, everyone hopes to have a magical crystal ball and see the future development direction of the market. Any judgment on whether the future house price changes will rise or fall is like a gambling game.Fortunately, however, the market trend is a linear continuation. Summarizing the changes in the property market in the past year, we can see some clues about the market in the next 12 months.

  Multi-pronged approach, the property market continues to cool down

  First of all, the soaring housing prices in the first ten months of 2016 are related to loose money and credit and lax supervision.Some funds originally expected to enter the real economy have instead entered the real estate investment field to promote housing prices.After October, a series of policies to strictly control the risks of real estate financial business, including prohibiting illegal issuance or misappropriation of credit funds into the real estate sector, have an immediate impact on real estate.According to the price dynamics of newly-built houses in 70 large and medium-sized cities in November released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China on December 19th, the number of cities whose house prices fell month-on-month increased to 11, an increase of 4 cities compared with October.

  One of the priorities of the central bank’s monetary policy in 2017 will be to curb the real estate bubble.In 2017, the monetary policy will remain stable and neutral, and at the same time, efforts will be made to prevent and control asset bubbles and strictly limit the flow of credit to invest in speculative housing purchases.The monetary authorities can induce short-term interest rate increase and guide banks to slow down the growth rate of real estate-related financing through regulation, and these measures will cool down the real estate.

  Secondly, the high housing prices in 2016 are related to residents’ lack of investment channels.At the beginning of the year, the successive "fuse" and "stock market crash" made a large number of investors lose confidence in the stock market. After a knife and knife, a lot of funds were transferred from the stock market and flowed to the property market that seemed to have a good rate of return at that time. After the addition of this fund, the heat of the market has been greatly improved and the property price has been raised.

  In the new year, although it is hard to say that the stock market will definitely pick up, it is unlikely to be worse than in the past.Moreover, the chances of a bond market pullback after the year-end crash are also rising.Therefore, in the new year, investors will have more choices and may not necessarily stick to the real estate with poor liquidity.This kind of asset diversion will make the property market "de-bubble" to a certain extent.

  Third, in the new year, the government’s control over the property market will be further increased on the basis of 2016, and the use value of the house will accelerate its return.The parties will further clarify that the house is for living, not for speculation. We should make precise efforts in regulation, curb investment speculation, increase the supply of ordinary commodity housing, and meet the rigid demand for housing. In order to achieve this goal, the government will provide more housing choices for residents by increasing the supply of residential land and standardizing the rental market.

  The regulation of the property market is not a comprehensive suppression, but a combination of strict control and guidance.

  It is a distinctive feature of the real estate policy in the new year that the policy will be implemented because of the city.What is certain is that the government will not comprehensively suppress and control the real estate policy across the board, but will combine strict control with guidance.The real estate market in first-tier cities should be strictly controlled; The focus of second-tier cities is to stabilize housing prices; The third-and fourth-tier cities still aim at "destocking".It is precisely because of the different control objectives that in the new year, there may be a greater division in the direction of housing prices in first, second and third tier cities.

  Of course, whether this series of regulatory policies can effectively affect the property market depends on the extent to which the government can resist the temptation of real estate to stimulate economic growth. In mid-2016, due to the steady economic growth in the first three quarters, the fourth quarter became a window period for regulation. And in the new year,Facing the new beginning, the balance between the government’s goal of achieving economic growth of not less than 6.5% and paying attention to the risk of real estate bubble will greatly affect the trend of the property market.

  At the same time, it should be clear that,Even under the combined effect of various conditions, it is difficult for the property market to rise as sharply as in 2016 in the new year, but it does not mean that the property market will definitely plummet.After all, no matter from the current proportion of mortgage in bank loans or the proportion of real estate in personal assets, the sharp drop in house prices will bring systemic financial risks and social risks, and the sharp drop in house prices does not meet the regulatory objectives.Therefore, in the new year, it is expected that house prices will bid farewell to the previous unilateral rising mode, and in the two-way mode, no matter the rise or fall, they will be controlled within a moderate range as much as possible.

The earliest tea unearthed in the world has promoted the tea affair in China for 300 years, and tea culture is exquisite.

Original literature and history Jun Haoran literature and history

There are two boys serving tea in the front of (part of) Yan Yin Tu in Tang Dynasty.

An archaeological report published by the archaeological team of Shandong University officially announced the discovery of the world’s earliest tea in the ruins of the ancient city of Guo in Zoucheng, Jining, Shandong. Prior to this, the earliest tea in the world was found in the burial pit of Yangling, Emperor Liu Qi of the Han Dynasty. This discovery of Shandong University directly pushed the historical upper limit of tea drinking in China for more than 300 years. Tea, as a kind of drink, has entered the daily life of China people for a long time. With the development of history, not only tea itself and its related material forms have been developed, but also tea has entered the spiritual world of China people and become a sustenance of the elegant people. When the tea inscription meets the ancient paintings, those long-gone tea events are vividly presented in front of us. Let’s follow these ancient paintings to see the tea events in China!

Tea found in the ruins of the ancient city of Guo in Zoucheng, Jining, Shandong Province

I. Tea Affairs in Tang and Song Dynasties

China people’s acceptance of tea is a gradual process. Legend has it that tea originated from Emperor Yan Shennong, but at this time it was used as a medicinal drink. In the Warring States period, people in China had drunk tea. In the Han Dynasty, tea was still used as a medicine or food to participate in people’s lives.

The earliest and most reliable record of tea can be found in "Tong Yue" written by Wang Bao of Sichuan in the Western Han Dynasty. It records what a servant should do every day, and one of them is "brew tea does everything … Wuyang buys tea". Later, tea pots engraved with the word "tea" in the Eastern Han Dynasty were unearthed in Zhejiang and other places. This shows that tea has been quite popular in the Han Dynasty.

Although there were sporadic records about tea in Wei and Jin Dynasties, the tea culture at this time was still in a hazy period. Tea culture gradually surfaced, not only in ancient paintings, but also in systematic records, starting from the Tang Dynasty. The Classic of Tea by Lu Yu, a native of Tang Dynasty, is the first monograph on tea culture in the history of China, while The Orchid Pavilion of Xiao Yi is the first ancient painting with brew tea in the history of our country.

The Song Dynasty’s Copy of Xiao Yi Earning Lan Ting Tu, which was anonymous in Tang Dynasty.

The popularity of tea in the Tang dynasty was recorded in detail in the sealed "Feng’s Experience". It is said that during the Kaiyuan period, a monk in Lingyan Temple in Taishan forgot to eat and sleep in order to study Zen, and he relied on drinking tea to eliminate his fatigue and hunger. After the news spread, it became a custom to follow suit. From Shandong to Chang ‘an, the then capital city, and Chasiying Street, the world could beg for a cup of tea as long as it invested money.

After the publication of Lu Yu’s Tea Classics in Tang Suzong, tea culture gradually became an art, which was favored by ministers and nobles. "When the tea ceremony is popular, all princes and courtiers will drink.".

"Wu Mei Niang Legend" Tea tasting in upper class

A picture of Gong Le Tu in the Tang Dynasty depicts twelve beautiful women playing music around the table. They are holding pipa, guzheng, sheng and other musical instruments. There is a big tea basin on the table, and a maid-in-waiting is taking tea from the tea basin and giving it to everyone. A beautiful woman is making a drink, which shows that tea has become an essential thing for these princes and nobles to have fun every day.

Gong le tu in Tang dynasty

According to Lu Yu’s Book of Tea, people in the Tang Dynasty can be divided into boiled tea, nunnery tea and tea. In the Tang dynasty, people also called boiling tea fried tea. Although their names are different, their methods are generally the same. Use a "tea pot" or "tea kettle" for "boiling tea". After the tea is cooked, you need to use a tea spoon to take it to other places. The "fried tea" uses "tea pan", and after the tea is cooked, it can flow directly from the spout to the container.

Temple tea is now brewed directly with boiling water, while tea is special. In the Tang Dynasty, people mixed tea and porridge into a kind of tea porridge, and this drinking method was called "porridge".

"Xiao Yi Earns Lanting Map" Part

The painting "Xiao Yi Earns Lanting Map" tells the story of Xiao Yi defrauding Lanting Preface from the debating machine for Emperor Taizong. In the lower left corner of the painting, there is a stove boiling tea, and an old man is squatting on the ground, holding a bamboo pod and stirring the tea powder in the tea pot. The old man is on his back, his nostrils are enlarged, and he seems to appreciate the rich tea fragrance. While another teenager is holding a black lacquer lamp holder and a white porcelain bowl, leaning over and waiting to pick up the tea that is about to be fried. The instrument used by the old people to cook tea is a tea jar. After the tea is cooked, it can be poured directly into the tea cup offered by the young people. This way of frying tea was a common way in the Tang Dynasty. Besides, we can also see tea-making tools such as saucer, tea mill and tea combination in this painting.

The image expressed in "Xiao Yi Earns Lanting Map" itself is that guests come to cook tea, which inadvertently reflects the skills and related tools of tea cooking in Tang Dynasty, and shows that the method of tea cooking in Tang Dynasty has reached maturity and entered people’s daily life. It is in line with Lu Yu’s sentence: "When you are immersed in the customs, it is prosperous in the country, and the two capitals are between Jing and Yu, thinking that it is better than drinking in the house."

The maid on the left side of Tang Zhou Fang’s "Tune the piano and compose the tea" serves tea.

Song people are better at tea than Tang people, but they have the habits of Song people. Tea was divided into "piece tea" and "loose tea" by Song people. "Piece tea" is a cake that has been squeezed into cakes, while "loose tea" is tea that has not been squeezed. However, Song people like tea powder, that is, grinding tea into powder, so whether it is "piece tea" or "loose tea", it is actually tea powder.

Because of the different forms of tea, the way of drinking tea in Song Dynasty was different from that in Tang Dynasty. Tang people like to "make tea", while Song people like to "order tea". The so-called "tea-ordering" means putting the tea powder in a tea cup, adding soup to it with a tea bottle, and finally stirring the tea powder. "Ordering" also means drip. This process seems simple, but it is actually very learned. The appearance of ordering tea, a way of drinking tea, also led to the emergence of a competition about tea cooking in Song Dynasty-fighting tea.

Prepare tea map

Tea fighting, also known as "tea fighting", has several processes. At first, it is necessary to iron the tea cup, and then "paste mixing", that is, pour the tea powder into the tea cup. The most important process is to pour boiling water and stir the tea leaves with teaspoons and tea baskets. Especially when mixing with a tea basket, we should pay attention to the priorities. After mixing a bowl of good tea soup, the foam floating on the surface should be evenly spread and the foam should be close to the tea cup, which is called "biting the cup". However, if the foamed camellia is not evenly spread to reveal a gap, then the mixing fails, which is called "cloud foot scattering" or "water foot scattering".

In the Song Dynasty, we can see several people in folk costumes squatting and fighting for tea, which is a good picture of folk fighting for tea.

Song dynasty’s anonymous "dou cha tu"

Generally speaking, not all tea leaves will use tea in this way. Song Wangguan said in "Learning Forest" that "the best of tea is to sip it; Those who fry and sip it are all common ",that is to say, good tea will use the way of ordering tea, and ordinary tea will still be used to fry tea." But in fact, almost everyone in the Song Dynasty used some tea when drinking tea.

Song people like tea, from the emperor or the public to the common people. Song Huizong once painted a picture of Wen Hui Tu, which was about the literati’s elegant collection of tea. The lower part of the painting depicts several waiters waiting for soup and ordering tea, showing the literati’s love for ordering tea at that time. In addition, in order to meet their own demand for tea, the royal family in the Northern Song Dynasty specially sent a transshipment ambassador to Beiyuan, Fujian Province to make tribute tea, with the name "Dragon and Phoenix Tuancha". Song Huizong once praised it as "Dragon and Phoenix Tuancha, which is famous in the world", and even wrote "Daguan Tea Theory" himself, becoming the only emperor in China history who personally wrote the tea theory.

Wen Hui Tu by Song Huizong in Northern Song Dynasty (partial)

In the masterpiece The Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival, we can find tea shops everywhere in the bustling Bianjing street, which became the most important place to meet the material and spiritual needs of the citizens in the Northern Song Dynasty.

Song Zhang Zeduan’s Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival (partial)

Second, tea affairs in Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties

The Yuan Dynasty was a dynasty established by Mongolian ethnic minorities. Because of the difference in diet, the Mongols were not very interested in drinking tea. In addition, the country of the Yuan Dynasty was not very long, so the drinking habits of the Yuan Dynasty basically followed the way of drinking tea in the Song Dynasty. However, the Yuan Dynasty was a transitional stage. At that time, there was a tea-making method of "soaking soup to remove smoke and decocting it with soup" in the south, which was basically consistent with the tea-drinking method in the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

Yuan mural Dao Tong

By the Ming Dynasty, there had been another great change in the way of drinking tea in China. Because the manufacturing process of tea powder is complicated, Ming Taizu officially abolished the tribute tea in Fujian in the Song Dynasty in the 24th year of Hongwu, and changed the tea powder to make tea. The form of tea was formally changed from group tea and cake tea to loose tea, which led to the general way of making tea now. Tea powder was abandoned, and the method of ordering tea was naturally abandoned. Over time, people in the Ming Dynasty did not know what the method of ordering tea was.

Xu Cishu, a Ming Dynasty man, recorded the way of making tea in Tea and Vegetables Cooking Point: "First, hold tea in your hand, once the soup is put into the pot, throw the tea soup at hand, and cover it with a lid. When you breathe three times, you will pour it into the pot again." Although the Ming people still pay attention to the first tea soup for washing tea and the second for drinking, this way of making tea has been much simpler than the tea frying method in Tang Dynasty and the tea ordering method in Song Dynasty.

Ming anonymous "tea tasting map"

In Wen Zhiming’s Tea Tasting Map, we can see a grass hiding under a tree, two people sitting opposite each other in the cottage, a teapot and two white porcelain teacups on the middle desk, and a boy cooking water in the side room. Tea drinking is born with a quiet temperament. Drinking tea in downtown is lively, but in such an environment as painting, tea drinking pays attention to quietness, and it is the most desirable way for scholars in Ming Dynasty to discuss tea in quietness. Zhang Yuan, a Ming Dynasty scholar, said in Tea Record: "Drinking tea with few guests is more expensive, but many guests are noisy, and noisy is lacking in elegance." It can be seen that the tea drinking of Ming scholars is a static word, which also gives a different sustenance to tea tasting.

Tea Tasting Map by Wen Zhiming in Ming Dynasty (partial)

When we compare this picture with the Song Dynasty’s "Dou Cha Tu" mentioned before, we will find that with the disappearance of tea powder and tea ordering, tea sets have been simplified, and the tools needed for drinking tea in the Song Dynasty, such as tea grinders, teaspoons and tea baskets, are no longer popular, so that scholars in the middle and late Ming Dynasty will be confused when they read the tea baskets written by Song people.

Tea basket

Although the procedures for drinking tea and tea sets have been simplified, the quality of life of the literati in Ming and Qing dynasties has not decreased at all. They have played new tricks on the remaining teapots, teacups and tea cans, and the tea sets in the Ming and Qing dynasties are more exquisite and exquisite.

Teapots in the two dynasties were made of purple clay pots, and Wen Zhenheng, a Ming dynasty, said in "Chronicles of Long Stories" that "the teapot is made of sand, and the cover is neither fragrant nor cooked." Ming people also prefer small pots, it is best to have a small pot for each person at the elegant meeting, so as to enjoy themselves.

Porcelain firing in Ming and Qing Dynasties reached its peak, which was reflected in tea ware’s style. Most of tea ware are exquisite, but the style is according to the emperor’s preference. Yong Zhengdi in Qing Dynasty likes elegance, while tea sets in Yongzheng Dynasty are mostly simple in shape, fresh and elegant in style, giving people a pleasing feeling. For example, in Yongzheng period, there were two Yixing Kiln Zisha tea pots, one of which was hexagonal, with the word "before the rain" engraved on the lid, while the other was round and round, with the word "Zhulan" engraved on the lid.

Objects in Yongzheng period

However, Emperor Qianlong advocated magnificence, so the style of tea set in Qianlong Dynasty was warm and gorgeous, and glaze and other techniques were widely used, with bright colors and diverse patterns, with the intention of highlighting the weather of a prosperous generation. For example, in the Qianlong Dynasty, a sapphire Sanqing tea poem covered the bowl. The sapphire was transparent, covered with gold patterns, and the bowl was exquisitely carved with poems. But this is also generally speaking, there were gorgeous tea sets in Yongzheng Dynasty, and there were also elegant tea sets in Qianlong Dynasty.

Qianlong period artifacts

It is worth mentioning that the rulers of the Qing Dynasty kept their own tea culture-milk tea when they accepted the tea culture of the Han nationality. According to records, Manchu people still kept the habit of drinking milk tea after entering the customs, and the palace also set up a special institution to provide milk tea. The Qing emperor liked to have a cup of milk tea before eating, and the milk tea and other drinks in the court were also distributed according to the quantity. The rulers of the Qing dynasty loved milk tea, and even when they went hunting, they didn’t forget to have a drink.

Ranz Ning’s Hongli Hunting Dinner in Qing Dynasty (partial)

Wen Shijun said

The origin of tea culture in China is very early, and ancient ancestors have already recognized the medicinal function of tea. With the development of history, tea has increasingly entered people’s daily lives, and the fragrance of tea can be smelled in the deep gardens of the palace, in the streets of the streets and in the barren hills and wild forests. The rise of tea culture has led to the change of the material form of tea drinking, and also enriched the spiritual life of the ancient people, and tea tasting has been given a different spiritual sustenance by the ancient people. Therefore, China’s tea culture includes both material and spiritual aspects.

reference data

Qiu Jiping: Chinese Tea Painting, Zhejiang Photography Publishing House, 2014.

Liao Baoxiu: Tea Affairs and tea ware in Past Dynasties, Palace Museum Press, 2017.

Zhao Qiuli and Fan Feng: The Archaeological Team of Shandong University Discovered the World’s Earliest Tea Remains, Guangming Daily, November 26, 2021.

(Author: Haoran literature and history Jingsu)

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